Government: Bill of Rights Notes

December 12, 2014

The Bill of Rights

The first 10 amendments
To the U. S. Constitution
Who determines what the Bill of Rights mean?
The Supreme Court makes rulings on the meaning
The Supreme Court balances the rights of the individual with the needs of society

The first amendment—5 rights mentioned
Freedom of Speech
Freedom of Religion
Freedom of the Press
Freedom of Assembly
Right to petition the government

Freedom of Religion
“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise there of”
Two clauses:
Establishment clause
Free Exercise clause

Freedom of Religion means the government can
Pay for busing to parochial schools
Provide nonreligious textbooks to parochial schools
Pay parochial schools to administer and grade tests
Allow parents to deduct (private) education related expenses from state income tax
Allow religious instruction during the school day away from public schools
Allow public high school students to hold religious group meetings at the school
Allow public officials to pray during meetings
Restrict religious practice if it conflicts with criminal laws, or laws that protect the health, safety, or morals of the community

The government can’t
Interfere with the free exercise of religion (implies separation between Church and State)
Make laws respecting an establishment of religion ( can’t promote a religion)
Provide financial aid for instructional material such as film, projector, and lab equipment for religious purposes
Help to pay for parochial schools to develop testing programs
Create a public school district to solely benefit a particular religious community
Use tax-supported public facilities for religious purposes
Allow prayer and bible reading at public schools
Make teachers observe a moment of silence for prayer
Ban the teaching of evolution in public schools
Create laws to require the teaching of creation vs. evolution

Freedom of speech
“Congress shall make no laws . . . abridging the freedom of speech”

Free speech– The individual can:
Say any political belief
Protest (without getting out of control)
Say things about someone that are true
Burn the flag
Say racist and hate slogans
Free speech means someone might say something you disagree with

Free speech—limits on the person
Threaten to blow up airplanes, schools or the president
Sexual harassment
Create too much social chaos
Extremely crude language in a public form
Disrespectful, vulgar language in schools
Hate crimes

Freedom of the press
Congress shall make no law . . . abridging . . . the freedom of the press.”

Freedom of the press-the press
Print any political position
Make fun of people, especially politicians
Expose wrongs by the government
Say things you might not agree with


Libel– intentionally injuring a person’s reputation by false facts (in print)
Slander – Verbally say something about a person that is not true.
Disclose defense-security secrets
Detail how to make a certain weapons

Freedom of Assembly
Congress shall make no law . . . Abridging . . . The people to peaceably assemble”
Freedom of Assembly–Individual
Parade (with a permit)
Parade chanting hate slogans
Gang members can congregate in public

Protest by throwing rocks and breaking windows
Hang out on private land against owners will—loitering
Teen curfew

Petition the Government
“Congress shall make no law . . . Abridging . . . the people. . . to petition the government for a redress of grievances”
Petition the government
You may sue the government for wrongs
You cannot be punished for exposing wrongs by the government
The courts decide the wrongs

2nd Amendment—Right to bear arms
“A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to bear arms shall not be infringed.”

What is the debate with the right to bear arms?
How much can the government keep guns from criminals and youth?
In order to keep guns away from criminals, does that limit the right of law abiding citizens?
Gun debate continued
Thousands of people die every year because of guns
Thousands of crimes are prevented because of guns

Third Amendment
The Government cannot force you to shelter soldiers in your home without your consent in time of war or peace.

Rights of the Accused Amendments #4-8
Important to preserve freedom

Fourth Amendment
What does a policeman need in order to search your home?
A warrant given to him by a judge
Probable cause is also needed

Fifth Amendment
You cannot be tried for the same crime twice—called “Double Jeopardy”
You do not have to testify against your self. “I plead the fifth”
You must have due process of law before you are convicted
The government cannot take your land unless it pays.

Sixth Amendment
Right to speedy trial by impartial jury—meaning not favoring either side
Sixth Amendment continued
You must be told of charges
You must be provided a lawyer if you cannot afford one

Seventh Amendment
Citizens have the right to demand a jury trial to settle disputes over things of value.

Eighth Amendment
No excessive bail
No cruel and unusual punishment
Bail and fines that are set by a court must be reasonable. Punishments for crimes cannot be cruel or unusual. Capital crime is punishable by death while infamous crime is punishable by jail term.

Ninth Amendment Rights Retained by the People
The government must respect all the rights of Americans, including rights that are not listed in the Constitution.
The government must respect all the rights of Americans, including rights that are not listed in the Constitution. So, even if the 4th Amendment didn’t enumerate an individual citizen’s right to privacy, or the 2nd Amendment didn’t protect the individual citizen’s right to keep and bear arms, THE NINTH AMENDMENT DOES.

Tenth Amendment , States’ Rights
The states, and the people, keep any powers that the Constitution does not specifically give to the federal government.
The states, and the people, keep any powers that the Constitution does not specifically give to the federal government.

Economics: Chapter 14 Notes

December 12, 2014

Chapter 14 – Taxes and Government Spending

Section 1 – What are Taxes?

1. Why do governments impose taxes?
To provide public goods and services and also to fund the functions of government.
2. What is the difference between a progressive tax and a regressive tax?
A progressive tax causes the percentage of income paid in taxes to increase as income increases.
A regressive tax in which the percentage of income paid in taxes goes down as income increases.
3. What are the four characteristics of a good tax?
Tax laws should be simple to understand.
Government should be able to collect taxes efficiently without spending too time and effort.
Taxpayers should have certainty regarding when the tax is due, how much is owed, and how to make the payment.
The tax system should be fair, so that no one bears too much or too little of the tax burden.
4. Describe the benefits received principle. How does it differ from the ability to pay principle?
The benefits received principle states that people should pay taxes based on the level of benefits they receive from the government. In contrast, the ability to pay principle states that people should pay taxes based on the level of their income.
5. What are the limits of taxation?
Tax can’t be used to fund individual interest.
Federal taxes must apply equally throughout the country.
Taxes can’t infringe on religious freedom.
Exports cannot be taxed.
6. Is sales tax progressive or regressive? Explain your answer.
Sales tax is regressive because a person with an income of $60,000 would pay a lower percentage of his income on the sale tax of a $1,500 HDTV than a person whose income is $30,000.

Chapter 14 – Taxes and Government Spending
Section 2 – Federal Taxes

In 2000, federal tax revenue was more than $1.8 trillion (1,800,000,000,000).

Six Major Sources of Revenue
1. Individual income taxes
2. Corporation income taxes
3. Social insurance taxes
4. Excise tax
5. Estate and gift taxes
6. Taxes on imports

Individual Income Tax Process
1. Get a job and go to work.
2. Employer withholds taxes from your paycheck.
3. Employer forwards the taxes to the federal government.
4. At the end of the year, the employer gives the employee a report (W-2) that shows your income and how much taxes have been withheld.
5. The employee files a tax return (1040 or 1040 EZ) to declare income to government. In order to figure out your income….
You must figure in wages, tips, commissions, interest earned, capital gains, and etc.
You can claim personal exemptions for you and dependents and also deductions.
6. Once the tax return is completed (April 15), if you owe more taxes than the amount being withheld, then you write a check along with the tax return to the IRS. If you owe less than the amount withheld, then the IRS will mail you a refund.

Critical Thinking:
1. Why is it difficult to determine a corporation’s taxable income?
A corporation can claim many business- related expenses for tax deductions.

2. What is the purpose of the social security tax? What is the income cap?
Social Security is used to provide pension for eligible people 62 or older. In addition, it is also used to provide benefits to surviving members of wage earners and to people who have disabilities. The government can not tax income above $72,600 for Social Security.

3. What is the purpose of the Medicare tax?
To pay health care cost for people over 65.

4. If your grandmother left you an inheritance of $500,000, how much would you owe the federal government in taxes? Explain your answer.
Nothing, because you can’t be taxed on estate worth 1.1 million or less.

5. What is the original goal of the gift tax?
To keep people from avoiding the estate tax by giving away money before they died.

Chapter 14 – Taxes and Government Spending
Section 3 – Federal Spending

Mandatory Spending – must be done as required by mandate or by law.
Servicing the national debt by paying the interest.
Mostly for entitlement programs such as welfare and social security.

Discretionary Spending – where government planners can make choices on how much to spend.
The funds are used for military, education, research, student loans, housing, law enforcement, etc.
It also includes salaries for government employees.

Complete the following statements.
1. Social Security is not a “means-tested” entitlement because… a retired person who has paid into the system is entitled to certain benefits.
2. To qualify for Medicare, you must be…at least 65 years old.
3. Medicaid is different from Medicare because…it beneficiaries are mostly America’s poorest people.
4. The most troubling problem plaguing entitlement spending is…that as time goes on, the costs are rising as people live longer lives. For example, the taxpayer to Medicare recipient ratio will increase from 4:1 in 1995 to 2:1 in 2050.
5. The biggest discretionary spending item is…defense.

12/11/14 Econ Homework for Period 2 Only

December 11, 2014

Copy and answer the questions below…

Ch. 14-2 Critical Thinking:
1. Why is it difficult to determine a corporation’s taxable income?
2. What is the purpose of the social security tax? What is the income cap?
3. What is the purpose of the Medicare tax?
4. If your grandmother left you an inheritance of $500,000, how much would you owe the federal government in taxes? Explain your answer.
5. What is the original goal of the gift tax?

Government Final Exam Review

December 8, 2014

Complete a set of detailed notes for all topics listed below.

Due on the day of the final exam for 50 points.


1 1,2,3
3 1,2
4 1,2,3
5 1,2,3,4
6 1,2,3,
7 1,3
8 3
10 1,2,3
11 2,3,4
12 3,4
13 1,2,5
14 2,3,4
15 1,4
17 3
18 3
19 1,2,3,4

Government Final Review Topics:

1. Unitary system
2. Federal system
3. Jurisdiction of federal court and Supreme Court
4. Classification of government: oligarchy, autocracy, democracy
5. Federalist vs. Antifederalist
6. Preamble of the Constitution
7. Capitalism, socialism, communism, and command economy
8. Concurrent resolution and joint resolution
9. How a bill becomes a law
10. Adam Smith
11. John Locke
12. Karl Marx
13. Electoral College: its flaws, proposed reforms
14. Articles of Confederation and its weaknesses
15. Structure of Congress
16. Formal qualifications for representatives and senators, length of term and term limits
17. Checks and Balances and examples
18. Separation of Powers
19. Politics
20. Formal qualifications for presidency, term and limit
21. Powers of Congress and President
22. Direct democracy vs. Representative democracy
23. Opinions of the Supreme Court: unanimous, concurring, dissenting, majority
24. Cause and effect of the Intolerable Acts
25. Magna Carta
26. Amendment 1
27. Amendment 2
28. Amendment 3
29. Amendment 4
30. Amendment 5
31. Amendment 6
32. Amendment 7
33. Amendment 8
34. Amendment 9
35. Amendment 10
36. Amendment 14 and Due Process
37. Slander vs. Libel
38. Constituent
39. Presidential succession
40. Separate-but-equal doctrine
41. Vice president and his duties
42. Impeachment process
43. Subpoena
44. Political parties
45. President’s judicial powers
46. Line item veto
47. Different forms of mass media
48. Factors that influence political party selection
49. Minor political parties
50. Extradition
51. Problems of the national government after the revolutionary war

Economics Final Review

December 8, 2014



Complete a set of detailed notes for all topics listed below.
Due on the day of the final exam for 50 points.

Important Topics:

1. entrepreneur
2. all factors of production (land, labor, capital)
3. efficient economy
4. law of demand, law of supply
5. shift of the demand curve
6. elasticity of demand
7. elasticity of supply
8. demand schedule
9. ceteris paribus
10. total revenue
11. characteristics of centrally planned economy and free market economy
12. mixed economy
13. traditional economy
14. Karl Marx
15. Adam Smith
16. Joseph Stalin
17. Vladmir Lenin
18. government subsidies
19. various types of monopolies
20. price discrimination
21. deregulation of industry (its cause and effect)
22. patent
23. effects of technology on the economy
24. cartel
25. M1 and M2 money
26. fiat money
27. financial intermediary
28. components of a bond
29. diversification
30. liquidity
31. capital deepening
32. distribution of income in the United States
33. Dow Jones Industrial Average and S&P 500 Index
34. GDP
35. income approach vs. expenditure approach
36. stock split
37. dividend
38. income stock
39. growth stock
40. common stock
41. phases of the business cycle (peak, contraction, trough, expansion)
42. Certificate of Deposit
43. mutual fund
44. characteristics and functions of money
45. inflation (cause and effect)
46. labor unions and what they do for workers
47. effects of a growing population on the economy
48. Medicare
49. inferior good vs. normal good
50. characteristics of the Chinese economy
51. opportunity cost
52. trade off
53. production possibilities frontier
54. scarcity
55. guns or butter

12/05/14 Econ Homework

December 5, 2014

Copy and answer questions 1-14 on page 353-353 to review Chapter 13.

Your Chapter 12 and 13 Test will take place on Monday.

Gov’t: Bill of Rights Project

December 5, 2014

Bill of Rights Poem/Rap/Song

Failure to bring a USB flash drive to class on due date will result in a loss of 5 points.

The goal of this project is for you to demonstrate your understanding of the ten amendments in the Bill of Rights. Collaborate with your partners to create a poem or rap/song that will exhibit:

  1. The goal of each amendment
  2. Your creativity by rhyming. ( Yes, it must rhyme! )

Share your work by creating a PowerPoint to present your poem/rap to the class. In your PowerPoint, remember the following tips.

  • Use size 24 font.
  • Don’t copy and paste.
  • Eliminate any spelling and grammatical errors, a point will be deducted for every error present in the PowerPoint.
  • Learn the pronunciation of every word. You have control of the content in your presentation, so do not include a word that you cannot enunciate properly. One point will be deducted for every word that is mispronounced.
  • Use text that provides contrast to the background.
  • Use appropriate pictures for EVERY slide.
  • Do not copy and paste.
  • Email PowerPoint file attachment to mkhsko
  • Include Period, name and topic in the subject field.

Extra Credit:
Feel free to use multimedia to enhance your presentation to the class. A maximum of 20 percent will be awarded based on the result and creativity of your effort.

Points: 50 points
Due: Friday, December 12, 2014


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