Chapter 2: Economic Systems
Section 4: Modern Economies
Copy and answer the following questions in Cornell format.
1. How does the government of North Korea intervene in its economy?
2. Where is the world’s most free market? Explain.
3. Why is China said to have a transitional economy?
4. What does it mean when an economy is being “privatized”?
Copy and answer questions 1,4, and 6 on page 77 and questions 1-4 on page 82 to review Chapter 3, Sections 2 & 3.
Chapter 3: The Constitution
Section 2: Formal Amendment
The Amendment Process
Methods to Propose
The first method is for a bill to pass both houses of Congress, by a two-thirds majority in each. Once the bill has passed both houses, it goes on to the states.
¾ of the states must approve of the amendment. This is the route taken by all current amendments.
The second method prescribed is for a Constitutional Convention to be called by two-thirds (34/50) of the legislatures of the States, and for that Convention to propose one or more amendments.
These amendments are then sent to the states to be approved by three-fourths (38/50) of the legislatures or conventions. This route has never been taken.
Regardless of which of the two proposal routes is taken, the amendment must be approved by three-fourths (38) of states. The amendment as passed may specify whether the bill must be passed by the state legislatures or by a state convention.
Chapter 3: The Constitution
Section 3: Constitutional Change by Other Means
1. By what means other than formal amendment has constitutional change occurred?
The process of constitutional change by means other than formal amendment has taken place—and continues to occur—in five basic ways: through (1) the passage of basic legislation by Congress; (2) actions taken by the President; (3) key decisions of the Supreme Court; (4) the activities of political parties; and (5) custom.
2. What role does the Cabinet play in government?
It is the Presidential advisory body, traditionally made up of the heads of the executive departments and other officers.
3. What is the current role of the electoral college?
It is the group that makes the formal selection of the nation’s President, usually based on the results of the popular votes in each state.
4. What is an executive agreement?
An executive agreement is a pact made by the President directly with the head of a foreign state. A treaty, on the other hand, is a formal agreement between two or more sovereign states. The principal difference between these agreements and treaties is that executive agreements need not be approved by the Senate. They are as legally binding as treaties.
5. Why has it been necessary to make changes in the Constitution by methods in addition to formal amendment?
The Constitution is a simple document. Most of its sections are brief, even skeletal in nature. In order to adapt to various needs of eras, the changes take place from the continually evolving experiences of government under the Constitution.
6. What do you think would happen in this situation: The President insists on making an appointment, despite the fact that a key senator has invoked the rule of senatorial courtesy against that appointment?
If the President insists on breaking the custom of senatorial courtesy, he might lost the support of the Senate members even if the Constitution has given him that power.