Chapter 14, Section 3 and 4 Notes

April 20, 2017

Chapter 14: The Presidency in Action
Section 3: Diplomatic and Military Powers

Treaty Power
A treaty is negotiated by the President through the secretary of state.
The Senate must give its approval, by a two-thirds vote of the members present.
The Senate does not ratify treaties. Instead, the President ratifies it by the exchange of formal notifications with the other party or parties to the agreement.
An existing law may be repealed by the terms of a treaty.
Executive Agreement
An executive agreement is a pact between the President and the head of a foreign state.
It does not require Senate’s consent.
Most come from of legislation already passed by Congress or out of treaties to which the Senate has agreed.
The President can make them without any congressional action.

Critical Thinking

1. Provide examples of this statement: The President’s power of recognition can be used positively or negatively.
Positively: President Truman’s recognition of Israel, within hours of its creation in 1948, helped that new state to survive among its hostile Arab neighbors.
Negatively: The President may show American displeasure with the conduct of another country by asking for the recall of that nation’s ambassador or other diplomatic representatives in this country.
2. Why does the U.S. need to recognize China diplomatically even though it has abused human rights?
Because China is our country’s biggest trading partner and it has a great impact on our economy.
3. Under what circumstances might the President declare a country’s diplomat to be persona non grata?
The withdrawal of recognition is the sharpest diplomatic reprimand or disapproval one government may give to another and has often been a step on the way to war.
4. Which of the President’s powers is almost unlimited? Why?
As commander-in-chief, the president’s power is almost unlimited because he has control over the military without needing any congressional approval.
5. How has the Congress limited the president’s military powers?
Congress passed the War Powers Resolution of 1973.
The resolution’s central provisions require that:
(1) Within 48 hours after committing American forces to combat abroad, the President must report to Congress, detailing the circumstances and the scope of his actions.
(2) A commitment of American forces to combat must end within 60 days, unless Congress agrees to a longer period. That 60-day deadline may be extended for up to 30 days, however, to allow for the safe withdrawal of the American forces involved.
(3) Congress may end the combat commitment at any time, by passing a concurrent resolution to that effect.
6. Interpret the following statement: “The purse and the sword must never be in the same hands.”
If the president controlled the budget (purse), his power would be hard to check if combined with his power over the military (sword). Congress can limit his executive power by controlling the military budget.

Chapter 14: The Presidency in Action
Section 4: Legislative and Judicial Power

Critical Thinking

1. What are the president’s two major legislative powers?
Message power-The president may recommend legislation through his speeches and annual Economic Report.
Veto Power-The president may also veto a specific bill, which Congress can override with a two-thirds majority of the number of members present in both the Senate and the House when the override vote is taken.
2. What are the three messages that the president sends to the Congress annually?
State of the Union message, a speech he almost always delivers in person to a joint session of Congress.
Budget message and the annual Economic Report.
The President often sends the lawmakers a number of other messages that calls on Congress to enact those laws he thinks to be necessary to the welfare of the country.
3. What is a line-item veto? Why has the Supreme Court ruled against it?
It is the power reserved for the president to cancel specific dollar amounts (line items) in spending bills enacted by Congress.
The Court ruled that Congress lacked the authority to give the President a line-item veto by statute and that power can only be given to the president by an amendment to the Constitution.
4. Why do some people support line-item veto?
They claim that it is a potent weapon against wasteful and unnecessary federal spending.
5. Why is threat of a veto often enough to prompt changes in a bill?
Because Congress has rarely been able to achieve the two-thirds majority needed to overturn a presidential veto in the past.
6. List and explain the judicial powers of the president.
Reprieve-a postponement of the execution of a sentence imposed by a court.
Clemency-the lessening of the penalty of the crime without forgiving the crime itself. The act of clemency is also a form of reprieve.
Amnesty-the forgiveness of a group of law violators.
Commutation-to reduce the length of a sentence or fine imposed by a court.
Pardon-the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it.


04/17/17 Homework – Due on Friday

April 17, 2017

Copy and answer questions 1-10 and 14-27 to review Chapter 14 test.

The Chapter 12-14 test will take place on Friday, 4/21/17.


Independent Agencies Google Slides Project – Due by Next Class Meeting (30 Points)

April 17, 2017

Functions of Independent Agencies

Presentation Requirements:

1. Title: Name and Seal of your Independent Agency
2. Who is in charge of the agency? You need to include the picture, name, and brief background information for the person in charge.
3. What are the goals of the agency?
4. Describe two of its programs/functions in detail. (At least 3 slides per function)
5. How does the agency affect your daily life?
6. Include illustrations and pictures for every slide.
7. Demonstrate one of its functions through a relevant and brief video (three minutes or less) found online. A video from the agency’s official Youtube channel is preferred.

Tips for Google Slides:

DO NOT COPY AND PASTE OR PLAGIARIZE !!! YOU WILL BE GIVEN ZERO POINTS FOR CHEATING!
• Use size 24 font.
• Don’t copy and paste.
• Eliminate any spelling and grammatical errors, a point will be deducted for every error present in the presentation.
• Learn the pronunciation of every word. You have full control of the content in your presentation, so do not include a word that you cannot enunciate properly. One point will be deducted for every word that is mispronounced.
• Use text that provides contrast to the background.
• Use appropriate pictures for EVERY slide.
• Use bullets to break up long paragraphs.
• Email invitation to view your presentation to ko_charles@ausd.us with topic, period, and names of all members in the subject field.

 


04/14/17 Homework

April 14, 2017

Complete the Thinking Map on your assigned questions.

Chapter 14: The Presidency in Action
Section 3: Diplomatic and Military Powers
1. Explain how treaties are made and approved.
2. Explain why and how executive agreements are made.
3. Provide examples of this statement: The President’s power of recognition can be used positively or negatively.
4. Why does the U.S. need to recognize China diplomatically even though it has abused human rights?
5. Under what circumstances might the President declare a country’s diplomat to be persona non grata?
6. Which of the President’s powers is almost unlimited? Why?
7. How has the Congress limited the president’s military powers? Explain in detail.
8. Interpret the following statement: “The purse and the sword must never be in the same hands.”

Chapter 14: The Presidency in Action
Section 4: Legislative and Judicial Power

1. What are the president’s two major legislative powers?
2. What are the three messages that the president sends to the Congress annually?
3. How do the president’s legislative and judicial powers reflect the system of checks and balances?
4. What is a line-item veto? Why has the Supreme Court ruled against it?
5. Why do some people support line-item veto?
6. Why is threat of a veto often enough to prompt changes in a bill?
7. List and explain the judicial powers of the president.
8. Find two examples of President Obama using his judicial powers and describe in detail.


04/12/17 Homework

April 12, 2017

Chapter 14: The Presidency in Action
Section 2: The President’s Executive Powers

Powers of the Executive Branch

A. Figure out whether each power is implied or expressed.
B. Describe what the President can do with each power.
C. Give an example of how the executive power works.

1. Executing the Law
A. Expressed
B. Uphold and carry out all federal laws, with some discretion in interpreting and enforcing them.
C. For example, immigration laws require that all immigrants seeking permanent admission to this country must be able to “read and understand some dialect or language.” But U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services in the Department of Homeland Security enforce the law.
2. The Ordinance Power
A.
B.
C.

3. The Appointment Power
A.
B.
C.

4. The Removal Power
A.
B.
C.


Chapter 13 Notes

April 12, 2017

Chapter 13: The Presidency
Section 1: The President’s Job Description

Official duties of the President
• Commander in Chief of the military
• Chief of State – acts as the ceremonial leader of the government.
• Chief Executive – appoints heads of executive department, federal court judges, and other officials.
• Chief Diplomat – makes treaties with the advice of the Senate and meets with head of states and host foreign officials.
• Chief Administrator – executes and enforces the laws
• Chief Legislator – proposes new policies
• Chief of (own) Political Party
• Chief Citizen – represents public interests against various competing private interests.

Term Limit
A president can serve 2 terms maximum with 4 years in each term. But the maximum amount of time is 10 years because if a VP takes over the presidency, he can serve 2 years or less plus additional two terms.

Benefits and salary of the President

The president’s salary is $400,000 per year plus…
• $50000 for expenses
• $100000 for travel allowances
• Lifetime pension of $148,000 per year
• Free office space and $96,000 per year for office help.
• Reside in the White House with tennis court, jogging track, gym, bowling alley, and a movie theater.
• Use of air Force One for travel.
• The medical insurance and other fringe benefits.

Constitutional Requirements
• Natural born citizen
• At least 35 years old
• Lived in the U.S. for at least 14 years.

Additional Unwritten but Necessary Requirements
• Previous experience in government. Many presidents served as senator or governor prior to entering the White House.
• Have money for campaign purposes.
• Male
• College educated
• Have the support of a major political party

Some people have called for the repeal of the 22nd Amendment because…
• They argue that the two-term rule is undemocratic because it places an arbitrary limit on the right of the people to decide who should be President.
• Some critics also say that the amendment undercuts the authority of a two-term President, especially in the latter part of his second term.

Chapter 13: The Presidency
Section 2: Presidential Succession and Vice Presidency

The line of succession is currently:

1. Vice President
2. Speaker of the House
3. President Pro Tempore of the Senate
4. Secretary of State
5. Secretary of the Treasury
6. Secretary of Defense
7. Attorney General
8. Secretary of the Interior
9. Secretary of Agriculture
10. Secretary of Commerce
11. Secretary of Labor
12. Secretary of Health and Human Services
13. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
14. Secretary of Transportation
15. Secretary of Energy
16. Secretary of Education
17. Secretary of Veterans Affairs
18. Secretary of Homeland Security

25th Amendment to the Constitution (1967)
Passed by Congress July 6, 1965.
Ratified February 10, 1967.
Replaced part of Article II, section 1 of the Constitution, originally written in 1783.

Section 1.

In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2.

Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3.

Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

OFFICIAL DUTIES
Other than serving as the President of the Senate (a role which only allows the Vice President to cast votes when the Senate is deadlocked in a tie), the Vice President has no formal constitutional authority.
• The primary duty of the Vice President is to sit and wait in the wings in the event the sitting President dies.
• In terms of real political power, Vice Presidents have exercised only the amount of power and authority given to them by the Presidents under whom they have served.

The Vice Presidency has also served as an important “training ground” for future Presidents. One-third of America’s Presidents were first Vice Presidents.

Vice Presidents can also play a significant role in the election campaigns of the Presidential candidates with whom they run.

Chapter 13: The Presidency
Section 5: The Election

If you were 40 years old in the year of 2016, how many times could you have possibly voted directly for the president and vice president?

Zero, because only the electors in the electoral can directly vote for the president and vice president.

Origins of the Electoral College

The Constitutional Convention considered several possible methods of selecting a president.

One idea was to have the Congress choose the president.
• But such an arrangement would upset the balance of power between the legislative and executive branches of the federal government.

A second idea was to have the State legislatures select the president.
• This idea could erode federal authority and thus undermine federalism.

A third idea was to have the president elected by a direct popular vote.
• But the Framers feared that without sufficient information about candidates from outside their State, people would naturally vote for a “favorite son” from their own State or region.
• At best, the most populous States would always decide the choice of president with little regard for the smaller ones.

The Presidential Election Process
1. Each political party chooses nominee for presidency during late summer conventions.
2. Voter cast ballot for president every four years on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. In reality, the voters are actually voting to decide how the electors in their state (Electoral College) will vote.
3. The party whose candidate receives the most popular votes in any state wins all electoral votes of that state even if the margin of victory is only one popular vote.
4. The presidential candidate must have at least 270 out of 538 electoral votes (the number of representatives and senators plus 3 for D.C.)
5. In December, the electors from the Electoral College cast their official vote for president and vice president. This occurs on Monday following the second Wednesday in December.
6. On January 6, both houses meet in the House of Representatives to open and count the ballots. Congress will officially declare the winner of the election.

Electoral College Issues

Winner takes all
• It allows a candidate who loses the popular vote to win the electoral vote because a candidate can still get more electoral votes even after getting less popular votes.

Third-party candidates
• A strong third-party candidate could win enough electoral votes to prevent either major-party candidate from receiving a majority of the votes unless his party bargains to release electoral votes to either major-party candidates.

PROPOSED SOLUTIONS

Election by the House
• Candidate needs 26 out of 50 states votes to win presidential election, all state has same weight. If representatives cannot agree on a candidate, the state loses its vote, if House favors the third-party, it would be hard to win.

The District Plan
• One idea is to choose electors from congressional districts where each state will have two electoral votes and one vote for each congressional district candidate. Whoever won the most district votes would get the two electoral votes.

The Proportional Plan
• Another plan is the presidential candidates would win the same share of a state’s electoral vote as the popular vote. It can cure the winner-take-all problem but it would make the election process more complicated.

Direct Popular Election
• If the people directly elected the president and vice president, it would undermine federalism because the states would lose their role in choice of a president, and candidates would concentrate their efforts in large cities.

National Bonus Plan
• Keep Electoral College System intact, but award 102 electoral votes to the winner of the popular vote.

538 + 102 = 640

321 Electoral Votes is needed to win the election.


Chapter 13 Review – Due on Wednesday, April 12, 2017

April 5, 2017

Copy and answer questions 1-22 (excluding 19 and 20) in Cornell format.