07/02/15 Homework

July 2, 2015

Chapter 12: Nationalism and Revolution around the World
Section 2: Nationalism in Africa and the Middle East

Copy and answer the questions posted below…

1. List and describe the injustices that were occurring in Africa in the 1900s?
2. How did the White Europeans ensure their own economic, social, and political supremacy in South Africa?
3. Explain the movement known as Pan-Africanism.
4. How was W.E.B. Dubois significant in the Pan-Africanism movement?
5. What was the negritude movement’s effect on African nationalism?
6. What political action did the Egyptians take to gain their independence?
7. Why did Mustafa Kemal change his name to Ataturk?
8. What were the reforms that took place in Turkey under the leadership of Ataturk from 1923-1938?
9. How was the success of Ataturk in Turkey relevant to reforms that took place in Persia (Iran)?
10. Why did the Middle East region gain importance after WWI? What was the effect of the newly gained importance?
11. What is Pan-Arabism and which countries supported this movement?
12. Why did the Arabs feel betrayed by the West (Allies) after WWI?
13. Describe the Allies’ conflicting promises that were made to the Arabs and European Jews during WWI?
14. Why did Palestine become a center of conflict after WWI?


Chapter 13 Project

July 2, 2015

Totalitarianism Project

Chapter 13: The Rise of Totalitarianism

Topics:
1. Changes in Society After WWI
2. New Scientific Theories
3. Cause and Effect of Great Depression
4. Democracies’ Reaction to Depression
5. Mussolini and Fascism in Italy
6. Cause and Effect of Stalin’s Five Year Plan
7. Stalin’s Terror Tactics / Effort to Control Thought
8. Soviet Society Under Stalin
9. Cause of Nazi Party’s Rise to Power
10. Hitler and Third Reich’s Treatment of the Jews

The objective of this project is for you to portray your chosen topic accurately through a documentary style short film. You and your group members will work cooperatively to create an original video to demonstrate the results of your collaboration.

For your Documentary…
1. Create a short video (3-5 minutes) on your assigned topic.
2. Be sure to include descriptive narration in your video production.
3. Upload your video to Youtube and share the link with me through my email at mkhsko@yahoo.com.
4. Be sure to include your name and topic in the subject field of the email.
5. Bring the file on a USB flash drive as a backup plan.
Failure to follow instructions will result in loss of points!

This project is worth 80 points.
It is due on Tuesday, 07/07/15.


07/01/15 Homework and Notes

July 1, 2015

Homework:
Complete the following tasks for Chapter 12…
Section 1: Two pages of Cornell notes from page 388-392.
Section 2: Three pages of Cornell notes from page 394-400.

NOTES

Chapter 11: World War I and the Russian Revolution
Section 5: Revolution and Civil War in Russia

The year 1913 marked the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. Everywhere, Russians honored the tsar and his family.

Appearances were deceiving. In March 1917, the first of two revolutions would topple the Romanov dynasty and pave the way for even more radical changes.

Causes Leading to the Revolution

Russia was slow to industrialize despite its huge potential. Landowning nobles, priests, and an autocratic tsar controlled the government and economy. Much of the majority peasant population endured stark poverty.
Nicholas II blocked attempts to limit his authority. He relied on his secret police to impose his will. Corruption also added to the government’s problems.
Revolutionaries hatched radical plots. Some hoped to lead discontented peasants to overthrow the tsarist regime.
World War I quickly strained Russian resources. The military was badly equipped and poorly led, they died in staggering numbers. In 1915 alone, Russian casualties reached two million.
When Nicholas II went to the war to take charge, he left domestic affairs to the tsarina, Alexandra.
Alexandra relied on the advice of Gregory Rasputin, an illiterate peasant and self-proclaimed “holy man.” The tsarina came to believe that Rasputin had miraculous powers after he helped her son, who suffered from hemophilia, a disorder in which any injury can result in uncontrollable bleeding.
Fearing for the monarchy, a group of Russian nobles killed Rasputin on December 29, 1916.
Industrialization in Russian lead to unrest because the exploitation of factory workers and the huge gap between the rich and poor.

The Bolsheviks believed that a revolution can be done with only a small number of committed revolutionaries willing to sacrifice everything even if it included violence. The Mensheviks wanted popular support for the revolution.

1. Who is Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin)?
He spread Marxist ideas among factory workers along with other socialists. They worked tirelessly to spread revolutionary ideas.

2. What is the main difference in ideology between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks?
The Mensheviks thought that socialism could be achieved through gradual and moderate reforms such as higher wages, increased suffrage, and social welfare programs.
The Bolsheviks felt that the reforms were merely capitalist tricks to repress the masses. Only revolution (usually violent) could bring about needed changes.

3. Why did Germany want Lenin to return to Russia in 1917?
Germany saw a chance to weaken its enemy by helping Lenin return home. Lenin rushed across Germany to the Russian frontier in a special train. He greeted a crowd of fellow exiles and activists with this cry: “Long live the worldwide Socialist revolution!”

4. What did Lenin promise to the suffering population of Russia?
Peace, land, and bread.

5. What were the mistakes committed by the provisional government under Alexander Kerensky?
The provisional government continued the war effort and failed to deal with land reform. Most Russians were tired of war. Troops at the front were deserting in droves.
Peasants wanted land, while city workers demanded an end to the desperate shortages. Growing numbers of troops mutinied. Peasants seized land and drove off fearful landlords.

6. Describe the actions taken by the Bolsheviks once they took control of Russia.
The Bolsheviks ended private ownership of land and distributed land to peasants. Workers were given control of the factories and mines. A new red flag with an entwined hammer and sickle symbolized union between workers and peasants. The Bolsheviks renamed themselves as the Communists.

Russia Plunges Into Civil War

After the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin quickly sought peace with Germany. Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, giving up a huge chunk of its territory and its population.

Opposing Forces

For three years, civil war raged between the “Reds,” as the Communists were known, and the counterrevolutionary “Whites.”

The “White” armies were made up of tsarist imperial officers, Mensheviks, democrats, and others, all of whom were united only by their desire to defeat the Bolsheviks.

The Allies intervened in the civil war. They hoped that the Whites might overthrow the Communists and support the fight against Germany. Britain, France, and the United States sent forces to help the Whites.

In the long run, the Allied invasion fed Communist distrust of the West.

Brutality was common in the civil war. Counterrevolutionary forces slaughtered captured Communists and tried to assassinate Lenin.

The Communists used terror not only against the Whites, but also to control their own people. They organized the Cheka, a secret police force much like the tsar’s. The Cheka executed ordinary citizens, even if they were only suspected of taking action against the revolution. The Communists also set up a network of forced-labor camps in 1919—which grew under Stalin into the dreaded Gulag.

The Communists adopted a policy known as “war communism.” They took over banks, mines, factories, and railroads.

Meanwhile, Trotsky turned the Red Army into an effective fighting force.

Trotsky’s passionate speeches roused soldiers to fight. So did the order to shoot every tenth man if a unit performed poorly.

By 1921, the Communists had managed to defeat their scattered foes.

Building the Communist Soviet Union
Russia was in chaos. Millions of people had died since the beginning of World War I. Millions more perished from famine and disease. Lenin faced the enormous problem of rebuilding a shattered state and economy.
New Government, Same Problems
In 1922, Lenin’s Communist government united much of the old Russian empire into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or Soviet Union. The Communists produced a constitution that seemed both democratic and socialist. It set up an elected legislature, later called the Supreme Soviet, and gave all citizens over 18 the right to vote. All political power, resources, and means of production would belong to workers and peasants.
In theory, all the member republics shared certain equal rights.
Reality, the Communist party, not the people, reigned supreme. Just as the Russian tsars had, the party used the army and secret police to enforce its will.
Lenin’s New Economic Policy
In 1921, Lenin adopted the New Economic Policy, or NEP. It allowed some capitalist ventures. Although the state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries, small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit. The government also stopped squeezing peasants for grain. Under the NEP, peasants held on to small plots of land and freely sold their surplus crops.
Lenin’s compromise with capitalism helped the Soviet economy recover and ended armed resistance to the new government. By 1928, food and industrial production climbed back to prewar levels. The standard of living improved, too.
But Lenin always saw the NEP as just a temporary retreat from communism. His successor would soon return the Soviet Union to “pure” communism.
Stalin Takes Over
Lenin died in 1924 at the age of 54. His death set off a power struggle among Communist leaders.
The chief contenders were Trotsky and Joseph Stalin.
Trotsky urged support for a worldwide revolution against capitalism.
Stalin, more cautious, wanted to concentrate on building socialism at home first.
Eventually, Stalin isolated Trotsky within the party and stripped him of party membership. In 1940, a Stalinist agent murdered Trotsky in Mexico.
In 1922, Lenin had expressed grave doubts about Stalin’s ambitious nature: “Comrade Stalin . . . has concentrated an enormous power in his hands; and I am not sure that he always knows how to use that power with sufficient caution.” Just as Lenin had warned, in the years that followed, Stalin used ruthless measures to win dictatorial power.


Fourteen Points

July 1, 2015

Avalon Project – President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points

Avalon Project – President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen PointsAvalon Home Document Collections Ancient 4000bce – 399 Medieval 400 – 1399 15th Century 1400 – 1499 16th Century 1500 – 1599 17th Century 1600 – 1699 18th Century 1700 – 1799 19th Century 1800 – 1899
View on avalon.law.yale.edu Preview by Yahoo

06/30/15 Homework

June 30, 2015

Complete the following tasks for Chapter 11…
Section 3: Two pages of Cornell notes from page 365-369.
Section 4: Two pages of Cornell notes from page 370-374.

NOTES
Ch. 11: World War I and the Russian Revolution
Section 1: The Great War Begins

In the early 20th century, the great powers of Europe were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy and France.

They often competed for industrial dominance and overseas colonies.
Because of that, a sense of rivalry and mistrust deepened between the competing nations.

Spurred by distrust of one another, the great powers of Europe—Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Britain, France, and Russia—signed treaties pledging to defend one another.

Otto Von Bismarck (Germany) planned to isolate France by…forming an alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy .

Triple Entente – A rival bloc took shape in 1893, when France and Russia formed an alliance. In 1904, France and Britain signed an entente, a non-binding agreement to follow common policies.

Militarism
Many felt patriotic about their nation of having a large military.
Others became increasingly concerned and frightened by the implications of the military build-up.

Nationalism
Germans were proud of their new empire’s military power and industrial leadership.
The French were bitter about their 1871 defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and yearned to recover the lost border province of Alsace and Lorraine.
Russia sponsored a powerful form of nationalism called Pan-Slavism. It held that all Slavic peoples shared a common nationality. Russia felt that it had a duty to lead and defend all Slavs.

Critical Thinking
Why did Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary’s trip to Sarajevo upset Serbians?
They viewed the Austrians as foreign oppressors. Some members of Unity or Death, a Serbian terrorist group commonly known as the Black Hand, vowed to take action.

How did Gavrilo Princip set off WWI?
Princip assassinated the Archduke and his wife during their visit to Bosnia. The Austrian government saw the incident as an excuse to crush Serbia. Germany’s Kaiser William II wrote to Francis Joseph, advising him to take a firm stand toward Serbia. William II gave Austria a “blank check,” or a promise of unconditional support no matter what the cost.

What was Russia’s reaction when Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914?
Nicholas II (Russia) telegraphed William II (Germany). The tsar asked the Kaiser to urge Austria to soften its demands. When this plea failed, Russia began to mobilize, or prepare its military forces for war. On August 1, Germany responded by declaring war on Russia.

How did France get drawn into the conflict?
The French nationalists saw a chance to avenge France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. French leaders gave Russia unconditional support. When Germany demanded that France keep out of the conflict, France refused. Germany then declared war on France.

What was Germany plan for victory against France? How did the plan draw Britain into war?
Germany’s location presented the possibility of a two-front war—against France in the west and Russia to the east. The Schlieffen Plan was designed to avoid this problem.
Schlieffen reasoned that Germany should move against France first because Russia’s lumbering military would be slow to mobilize. However, Germany had to defeat France quickly so that its armies could then turn around and fight Russia.
To ensure a swift victory in the west, the Schlieffen Plan required German armies to march through neutral Belgium and then swing south behind French lines. The goal was to encircle and crush France’s army. The Germans embarked on the plan by invading Belgium on August 3. However, Britain and other European powers had signed a treaty guaranteeing Belgian neutrality. Outraged by the invasion of Belgium, Britain declared war on Germany on August 4.

Why were young men on both sides eager to fight when WWI started?
A renewed sense of patriotism united countries. Governments on both sides emphasized that their countries were fighting for justice and a better world. Young men rushed to enlist, cheered on by women and their elders. Now that war had come at last, it seemed an exciting adventure.


WWI Project

June 29, 2015

Chapter 11: WWI and the Russian Revolution

Topics:

  • Causes of the War
  • Assasination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and its effect
  • Western Front
  • Eastern Front
  • Technology of Modern Warfare
  • Total War
  • U.S. Declares War and Fourteen Points
  • The End of WWI
  • TheCost and Effects of War
  • Paris Peace Conference and Treaty of Versaille
  • League of Nations and Peace Settlements
  • End of Tsarism and Effects of WWI on Russia
  • Cause and Effect of Civil War in Russia
  • Communist Soviet Union and Stalin

The objective of this project is for you to portray your chosen topic accurately through a documentary style / skit short film. You and your group members will work cooperatively to create an original video to demonstrate the results of your collaboration.

For your Documentary / Skit…
1. Create a short video (3-5 minutes) to your assigned topic.
2. Be sure to include descriptive narration in your video production.
3. Upload your video to Youtube and share the link with me through my email at mkhsko@yahoo.com.
4. Be sure to include your name and topic in the subject field of the email.
5. Bring the file on a USB flash drive as a backup plan.

Failure to follow instructions will result in loss of points!

This project is worth 80 points.
It is due on Thursday, 07/02/15.


06/25/15 Homework

June 29, 2015

Homework:
1. Complete 2 pages of Cornell notes from page 332-336 for Chapter 10-3.
2. Copy and answer questions 1-19 on page 346 to review for the Chapter 10 test tomorrow.

Notes
Ch.10: New Global Patterns
Section 1: Japan Modernize

Find the effect of the following events.

1. 17th Century: Japan shuts its doors from all contact with other countries.

Effect:
Japan was isolated for the next two centuries and lived in peace and relative prosperity.

2. 1853: U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry took four ships into the Tokyo Harbor and coerced Japan to open its port for trade.

Effect:
The Japanese were intimidated by the modern weapons possessed by the Americans, so they decided to open up its port for trade.

3. 1854: Treaty of Kanagawa was signed.

Effect:
Japan opened two ports to allow American ships to take on supplies. It also allowed the U.S. to set up an embassy in Japan.

4. 1860: Japan grants foreigners permission to trade at treaty ports and extends extraterritorial rights to many foreign nations.

Effect:
Many Japanese citizens were angry due their strong national pride and their sense of nationalism.

5. 1867: The Japanese citizens were upset that the shogun had given into foreigners’ demands.

Effect:
Tokugawa shogun stepped down from his leadership role and Japan’s young emperor Mutsuhito took over. He ruled from 1867-1912 in the period known as the Meiji Era-meaning enlightened rule.

Ch. 10: New Global Patterns
Sec. 2: Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific

Vocabulary:
Convert (noun), suppress, turmoil, resentment, treaty, entanglement, transition, annexation.

Nation: The Netherlands
Colonies: Indonesia
Resources: Rubber, tin, oil, coffee, indigo, spices.

Nation: Britain
Colonies: Singapore, Malaysia, Burma (Myanmar)
Resources: S-A large sheltered Harbor
M-Tin and Rubber
B-Teak and Oil

Nation: France
Colonies: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
Resources: Rice for exportation

Christian missionaries moved into Vietnam and won some converts.
Vietnamese officials tried to suppress Christianity by killing converts and missionary priests.
In response, France invaded Vietnam in 1858.

Kingdom of Siam (Thailand)

King Mongkut, who ruled from 1851 to 1868, did not underestimate Western power.

To prevent Thailand from being colonized, he took the following actions…
Studied foreign languages and read widely on modern science and mathematics.
Negotiated with the Western powers and satisfy their goals in Siam by making agreements in unequal treaties.
Reformed the government, modernized the army, and hired Western experts to teach Thais how to use the new technology.
Abolished slavery and gave women some choice in marriage.
Promoted Siam as a neutral zone between Britain and France.
Built its own railroad and telegraph system.

Cause of conflicts between the Chinese and the native Malays

When the British encouraged the Chinese to immigrate to Malaysia, the Chinese became highly successful. Soon the Malays became a minority in their own country.

Positive effects of European colonization in Southeast Asia
Many economies grew as a result.
Roads, harbors, and rail systems were built to improve communication and trade.
Education and sanitation also received improvements.

Finish the incomplete sentences.

1. Filipino rebel leaders declared independence from Spain because…
they were encouraged by American naval officers.
2. As a result of the Spanish-American War in 1898, the U.S. got…
the Philippine Islands ($20 million), Puerto Rico, and Guam.
3. Filipino nationalists were bitterly disappointed because they thought that…
the Americans would recognize their independence.
4. Emilio Aguinaldo led the Filipino nationalists to…
battled American forces. In the end, the Americans crushed the rebellion.
5. The Filipinos benefited from the American occupation of the Philippines because…
the Americans built roads, hospitals, railroads, school systems and also made economic reforms.
6. Hawaii was valuable because…
it was a port on the way to Asia and also because it has a profitable sugar industry.
7. In the mid 1800s, business leaders pushed for the annexation of Hawaii by the U.S. because…
if the United States did not take Hawaii, Britain or Japan might do so.
8. In 1898, Hawaii was finally…
annexed by the United States.

Chapter 10: New Global Patterns
Section 4: Economic Imperialism in Latin America

Social and political Hierarchy during the 1800s in Latin America

Creole
Mestizo
Mulatto
Blacks
Natives

In the 1800s, most laborers in Latin America worked for landowners, but they were paid by vouchers that can only be used at the landowners’ supply store.

Wages were low and prices were high, many laborers went into debt and passed on their debts to the next generation.
The workers would get caught in the system known as peonage and would never gain financial independence.

When the new governments took over the country, they seized the lands that were formerly owned by the native people and the church.
When the lands were offered for sale, landowners bought them up quickly but did not make proper use of the land.

“Caudillos” were able to remain in power…
By using violence to intimidate opponents.
They were usually supported by the upper class who did not want the lower class to gain any power.
Only a selected few can vote.

Finish the incomplete statements below.

1. In the 1800s, bitter battles between conservatives and liberals led to…
revolts and the rise of dictators. Deep social divisions separated wealthy creoles from mestizos and Indians who lived in poverty.
2. In 1845, the United States annexed Texas. Mexicans interpreted this action…
as a declaration of war.
3. The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, which ended the war, caused Mexico to lose…
almost half its territory (California, Texas, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona). The embarrassing defeat triggered new violence between conservatives and liberals.
4. Benito Juárez’s La Reforma revised the Mexican constitution…
to strip the military of power and end the special privileges of the Church. They ordered the Church to sell unused lands to peasants.
5. When Juárez died in office in 1872, he united Mexico by…
bringing mestizos into politics, and separating church and state.
6. General Porfirio Díaz ruled as a dictator from 1876 to 1880 and 1884 to 1911. He strengthened… the army, local police, and central government. He also crushed opposition.
7. Under the rule of Diaz, economy improved when…
railroads were built, foreign trade increased, some industry developed, and mining expanded.
8. The peonage system caused discontent with the mestizos and Indians in Mexico because… hacienda owners would give workers advances on their wages and require them to stay on the hacienda until they had paid back what they owed. Wages remained low, and workers were rarely able to repay the hacienda owner. Many children died in infancy. Other children worked 12-hour days and never learned to read or write.

Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America economically dependent on Spain and Portugal.
Colonies sent raw materials such as cash crops or precious metals to the parent country.
Must buy manufactured goods from the ruling country.
Laws kept colonists from trading with other countries and possibly obtaining goods at a lower price.
Building of local industries that would have competed with the ruling country was prohibited.

After independence, Britain and the United States rushed into the new markets, replacing Spain as Latin America’s major trading partners.
Investors from Britain, the United States, and other nations pressured their own governments to take action if political events or reform movements in a Latin American country seemed to threaten their interests.
Foreigners invested in modern ports and railroads to carry goods from the interior to coastal cities.
European immigrants poured into Latin America. The newcomers helped to promote economic activity, and a small middle class emerged.
Internal development was limited. The tiny elite at the top benefited from the economic upturn, but very little trickled down to the masses of people at the bottom.
The poor earned too little to buy consumer goods. Without a strong demand, many industries failed to develop.

Critical Thinking

1. What is the Monroe Doctrine?
It was a document that declared to the European nations that the American continent will no longer be subjected to European colonization.

2. Why did the U.S. join the Spanish-American War for Cuban independence?
By the 1890s, the U.S. had developed significant business holdings in Cuba. Therefore, the U.S. had a stake in the affairs of Cuba. Furthermore, many Cubans were being forced into concentration camps by the Spanish. Many Americans objected to that brutal practice.

3. In 1901, after Spain was defeated in the Spanish-American War, did Cuba get its independence?
Cuba was independent only in name but not in actuality. After the war, the U.S. installed a military government that kept Cuba from achieving true independence (made possible by the Platt Amendment in the Cuban Constitution).

4. Why was Panama a valuable location to the U.S.?
Panama contained a location that was ideal for the construction of a canal that would save sailors of having to go around the tip of South America during the coast to coast journey. Basically, a 13,000 mile journey would be cut in half.

5. What actions did the U.S. take when Colombia demanded more money from the U.S. for the rights to build a canal in Panama?
The United States encouraged a revolution in Colombia by helping the Panamanians to break away from Colombia with the assistance of the U.S. navy. When Panama succeeded, it gave U.S. a 10 mile wide stretch of land to build the canal as a token of its gratitude.

6. What is the Roosevelt Corollary? How did the U.S. use it?
The Roosevelt Corollary was issued in 1904 by President Roosevelt to protect the economic interests of the U.S. by giving it “international police power” in the western hemisphere. The U.S. used it as justification for intervention in Latin America and also for the occupation of troops in some countries. Many Latin American countries complained, but they were ignored. It was also known as the “Big Stick” policy.


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