Gov’t: Bill of Rights Notes

May 18, 2015

The Bill of Rights

The first 10 amendments to the U. S. Constitution

Who determines what the Bill of Rights mean?
The Supreme Court makes rulings on the meaning
The Supreme Court balances the rights of the individual with the needs of society

The first amendment—5 rights mentioned
Freedom of Speech
Freedom of Religion
Freedom of the Press
Freedom of Assembly
Right to petition the government

Freedom of Religion
“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise there of”
Two clauses:
Establishment clause
Free Exercise clause

Freedom of Religion means the government can
Pay for busing to parochial schools
Provide nonreligious textbooks to parochial schools
Pay parochial schools to administer and grade tests
Allow parents to deduct (private) education related expenses from state income tax
Allow religious instruction during the school day away from public schools
Allow public high school students to hold religious group meetings at the school
Allow public officials to pray during meetings
Restrict religious practice if it conflicts with criminal laws, or laws that protect the health, safety, or morals of the community

The government can’t
Interfere with the free exercise of religion (implies separation between Church and State)
Make laws respecting an establishment of religion ( can’t promote a religion)
Provide financial aid for instructional material such as film, projector, and lab equipment for religious purposes
Help to pay for parochial schools to develop testing programs
Create a public school district to solely benefit a particular religious community
Use tax-supported public facilities for religious purposes
Allow prayer and bible reading at public schools
Make teachers observe a moment of silence for prayer
Ban the teaching of evolution in public schools
Create laws to require the teaching of creation vs. evolution

Freedom of speech
“Congress shall make no laws . . . abridging the freedom of speech”

Free speech– The individual can:
Say any political belief
Protest (without getting out of control)
Say things about someone that are true
Burn the flag
Say racist and hate slogans
Free speech means someone might say something you disagree with

Free speech—limits on the person
Threaten to blow up airplanes, schools or the president
Sexual harassment
Create too much social chaos
Extremely crude language in a public form
Disrespectful, vulgar language in schools
Hate crimes

Freedom of the press
Congress shall make no law . . . abridging . . . the freedom of the press.”

Freedom of the press-the press
Can
Print any political position
Make fun of people, especially politicians
Expose wrongs by the government
Say things you might not agree with

CANNOT

Libel– intentionally injuring a person’s reputation by false facts (in print)
Slander – Verbally say something about a person that is not true.
Disclose defense-security secrets
Detail how to make a certain weapons

Freedom of Assembly
Congress shall make no law . . . Abridging . . . The people to peaceably assemble”
Freedom of Assembly–Individual
Can
Protest
Parade (with a permit)
Parade chanting hate slogans
Gang members can congregate in public

CANNOT
Protest by throwing rocks and breaking windows
Hang out on private land against owners will—loitering
Teen curfew

Petition the Government
“Congress shall make no law . . . Abridging . . . the people. . . to petition the government for a redress of grievances”
Petition the government
You may sue the government for wrongs
You cannot be punished for exposing wrongs by the government
The courts decide the wrongs

2nd Amendment—Right to bear arms
“A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to bear arms shall not be infringed.”

What is the debate with the right to bear arms?
How much can the government keep guns from criminals and youth?
In order to keep guns away from criminals, does that limit the right of law abiding citizens?
Gun debate continued
Thousands of people die every year because of guns
Thousands of crimes are prevented because of guns

Third Amendment
The Government cannot force you to shelter soldiers in your home without your consent in time of war or peace.

Rights of the Accused Amendments #4-8
Important to preserve freedom

Fourth Amendment
What does a policeman need in order to search your home?
A warrant given to him by a judge
Probable cause is also needed

Fifth Amendment
You cannot be tried for the same crime twice—called “Double Jeopardy”
You do not have to testify against your self. “I plead the fifth”
You must have due process of law before you are convicted
The government cannot take your land unless it pays.

Sixth Amendment
Right to speedy trial by impartial jury—meaning not favoring either side
Sixth Amendment continued
You must be told of charges
You must be provided a lawyer if you cannot afford one

Seventh Amendment
Citizens have the right to demand a jury trial to settle disputes over things of value.

Eighth Amendment
No excessive bail
No cruel and unusual punishment
Bail and fines that are set by a court must be reasonable. Punishments for crimes cannot be cruel or unusual. Capital crime is punishable by death while infamous crime is punishable by jail term.

Ninth Amendment Rights Retained by the People
The government must respect all the rights of Americans, including rights that are not listed in the Constitution.
The government must respect all the rights of Americans, including rights that are not listed in the Constitution. So, even if the 4th Amendment didn’t enumerate an individual citizen’s right to privacy, or the 2nd Amendment didn’t protect the individual citizen’s right to keep and bear arms, THE NINTH AMENDMENT DOES.

Tenth Amendment , States’ Rights
The states, and the people, keep any powers that the Constitution does not specifically give to the federal government.
The states, and the people, keep any powers that the Constitution does not specifically give to the federal government.


Gov’t: Chapter 19, Sections 2-4 Notes

May 18, 2015

Chapter 19 – Civil Liberties: First Amendment Freedoms
Section 2-Freedom of Religion

Some of the first colonists of the nation for which the Constitution was written had been seeking to escape religious persecution.

Freedom of Religion
“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise there of”

The Establishment Clause sets up what Thomas Jefferson called “a wall of separation between church and state.”
What does it mean to separate church and state?
The Free Exercise Clause protects Americans’ right to believe—though not to do—whatever they wish.

Establishment Clause

  • Guards against establishing a mandated religion.
  • In effect, freedom from religion
  • Free Exercise Clause
  • Guards against the government interference in the exercise of any religion.
  • In effect, freedom for religion.

Separation of Church and State

  • Church and government are constitutionally separated from one another.
  • Religion and Education
  • The Supreme Court has had to consider many Establishment Clause cases that involve religion and education.
  • The Lemon Test
  • The purpose of the aid must be nonreligious.
  • The aid can neither advance nor inhibit religion.
  • Aid must not excessively entangle the government with religion.
  • Freedom of Religion means the government can
  • Pay for busing to parochial schools
  • Provide nonreligious textbooks to parochial schools
  • Pay parochial schools to administer and grade tests
  • Allow parents to deduct (private) education related expenses from state income tax
  • Allow religious instruction during the school day away from public schools
  • Allow public high school students to hold religious group meetings at the school
  • Allow public officials to pray during meetings
  • Restrict religious practice if it conflicts with criminal laws, or laws that protect the health, safety, or morals of the community

The government cannot…

  • Interfere with the free exercise of religion (implies separation between Church and State)
  • Make laws respecting an establishment of religion ( can’t promote a religion)
  • Provide financial aid for instructional material such as film, projector, and lab equipment for religious purposes
  • Help to pay for parochial schools to develop testing programs
  • Create a public school district to solely benefit a particular religious community
  • Use tax-supported public facilities for religious purposes
  • Allow prayer and bible reading at public schools
  • Make teachers observe a moment of silence for prayer
  • Ban the teaching of evolution in public schools
  • Create laws to require the teaching of creation vs. evolution

Chapter 19 – Civil Liberties: First Amendment Freedoms
Section 3- Freedom of Speech and Press
According to the Bill of Rights, can you say whatever you want?

The Free Exchange of Ideas
Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Press guarantees are meant to:
• Protect each person’s right of free expression, whether spoken, written, or communicated in any other way.
• Protect all persons’ right to a complete discussion of public affairs.
Freedom of Speech and Press do not protect:
• Libel, the false and malicious use of written words
• Slander, the false and malicious use spoken words
• Obscenity
• Words that incite others to commit crimes

Seditious Speech
Congress has enacted three major laws to prevent sedition and seditious speech:
• The Alien and Sedition Acts—made scandalous or false criticism of the government illegal. Expired before Thomas Jefferson took office in 1801.
• The Sedition Act of 1917—made it a crime to encourage disloyalty or spread anti-government ideas during a time of crisis. Upheld by the Supreme Court in instances of “clear and present danger.”
• The Smith Act of 1940—forbade advocating violent overthrow of the government, and belonging knowingly to any group that does.

Prior Restraint
In most cases, the government cannot curb ideas before they are expressed. It can punish ideas after they are expressed.
The Media

Symbolic Speech
• Symbolic speech is expression by conduct.
• Picketing, the patrolling of a business site by workers on strike, is a prevalent form of symbolic speech.
• Supreme Court rulings show that the blanket of symbolic speech covers only so much. It does not cover destroying draft cards (United States v. O’Brien, 1968) but it does encompass flag burning (Texas v. Johnson, 1989, and United States v. Eichman, 1990).
Commercial Speech
Commercial Speech is speech for business purposes, usually advertising.
Government can forbid advertising that is neither false nor misleading.

Chapter 19 – Civil Liberties: First Amendment Freedoms
Section 4 – Freedom of Assembly and Petition

The Constitution’s Guarantees
The Constitution guarantees “…the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”

So what does it allow you to do without getting arrested?
• The right to assemble, or gather with one another to express views.
• The right to bring views to the attention of public officials.
Time-Place-Manner Regulations
The government can make and enforce rules regarding the time, place, and manner of assemblies.
The rights of assembly and petition do not give people a right to trespass on private property.
States can interpret their constitutions to require owners of private property, such as shopping centers, to allow people to petition on their property.
Freedom of Association
• The guarantees of freedom of assembly and petition include a right of association—the right to associate with others to promote causes.
The freedom of association also means that a State cannot force an organization to accept members when that association would contradict what the organization believes in.
The Supreme Court has ruled that Boy Scouts of America can exclude gays from its organization.


Economics: Final Exam Review

May 15, 2015

CHAPTERS TO BE INCLUDED
1,2,4,5,6-1,7,9,10,11,12,13,14
Complete a set of detailed notes for all topics listed below.
Due on the day of the final exam for 50 points.
Important Topics:
1. entrepreneur
2. all factors of production (land, labor, capital)
3. efficient economy
4. law of demand, law of supply
5. shift of the demand curve
6. elasticity of demand
7. elasticity of supply
8. demand schedule
9. ceteris paribus
10. total revenue
11. characteristics of centrally planned economy and free market economy
12. mixed economy
13. traditional economy
14. Karl Marx
15. Adam Smith
16. Joseph Stalin
17. Vladmir Lenin
18. government subsidies
19. various types of monopolies
20. price discrimination
21. deregulation of industry (its cause and effect)
22. patent
23. effects of technology on the economy
24. cartel
25. M1 and M2 money
26. fiat money
27. financial intermediary
28. components of a bond
29. diversification
30. liquidity
31. capital deepening
32. distribution of income in the United States
33. Dow Jones Industrial Average and S&P 500 Index
34. GDP
35. income approach vs. expenditure approach
36. stock split
37. dividend
38. income stock
39. growth stock
40. common stock
41. phases of the business cycle (peak, contraction, trough, expansion)
42. Certificate of Deposit
43. mutual fund
44. characteristics and functions of money
45. inflation (cause and effect)
46. labor unions and what they do for workers
47. effects of a growing population on the economy
48. Medicare
49. inferior good vs. normal good
50. characteristics of the Chinese economy
51. opportunity cost
52. trade off
53. production possibilities frontier
54. scarcity
55. guns or butter


Gov’t: Final Exam Review

May 15, 2015

GOVERNMENT FINAL EXAM CHAPTERS

CHAPTER SECTION
1 1,2,3
3 1,2
4 1,2,3
5 1,2,3,4
6 1,2,3,
7 1,3
8 3
10 1,2,3
11 2,3,4
12 3,4
13 1,2,5
14 2,3,4
15 1,4
17 3
18 3
19 1,2,3,4

Complete a set of detailed notes for all topics listed below.
Due on the day of the final exam for 50 points.

Government Final Review
1. Unitary system
2. Federal system
3. Jurisdiction of federal court and Supreme Court
4. Classification of government: oligarchy, autocracy, democracy
5. Federalist vs. Antifederalist
6. Preamble of the Constitution
7. Capitalism, socialism, communism, and command economy
8. Concurrent resolution and joint resolution
9. How a bill becomes a law
10. Adam Smith
11. John Locke
12. Karl Marx
13. Electoral College: its flaws, proposed reforms
14. Articles of Confederation and its weaknesses
15. Structure of Congress
16. Formal qualifications for representatives and senators, length of term and term limits
17. Checks and Balances and examples
18. Separation of Powers
19. Politics
20. Formal qualifications for presidency, term and limit
21. Powers of Congress and President
22. Direct democracy vs. Representative democracy
23. Opinions of the Supreme Court: unanimous, concurring, dissenting, majority
24. Cause and effect of the Intolerable Acts
25. Magna Carta
26. Amendment 1
27. Amendment 2
28. Amendment 3
29. Amendment 4
30. Amendment 5
31. Amendment 6
32. Amendment 7
33. Amendment 8
34. Amendment 9
35. Amendment 10
36. Amendment 14 and Due Process
37. Slander vs. Libel
38. Constituent
39. Presidential succession
40. Separate-but-equal doctrine
41. Vice president and his duties
42. Impeachment process
43. Subpoena
44. Political parties
45. President’s judicial powers
46. Line item veto
47. Different forms of mass media
48. Factors that influence political party selection
49. Minor political parties
50. Extradition
51. Problems of the national government after the revolutionary war


Gov’t: Chapter 15-19 Test will take place on Monday 05/18/15

May 14, 2015

The test will cover the following sections…

Ch. 15, Sec. 1 and 4
Ch. 17, Sec. 3
Ch. 18, Sec. 3
Ch. 19, Sec. 1-4


Economics: Personal Finance Project

May 14, 2015

Topics

1. Creating a Budget
2. Credit and Debt
3. Paying for Education
4. Buying a Car
5. Renting an Apartment
6. Buying Insurance
7. Getting a Job

  • Present the information from your topic in a 4-6 minute PowerPoint presentation.
  • Provide real life examples relevant to your topic. For example, if your topic is “Renting an Apartment”, then you need to get on the Internet to find apartments for rent in the San Gabriel Valley area to demonstrate the typical apartment that you could rent in the price range that is appropriate for your budget.
  • End the PowerPoint Presentation with a 3 question assessment to ensure comprehension.
  • You may enhance your presentation with multimedia files for extra credit.

THE PROCESS

  • Divide the work up evenly with your partners working on each assignment.
  • Include a picture for every slide to enhance your presentation.
  • Proofread all work carefully.
  • Make your PowerPoint show colorful and pleasing to the eye.
  • Minimum font size should be 24.
  • Practice your presentation several times before it is your turn to present. Since you have full control of the content in the presentation, be sure that it is free of spelling / grammatical errors and that you know how to pronounce every word in your presentation.
  • Share your presentation with me through Google Docs by sending it to my email at mkhsko@yahoo.com. Please do not require me to sign-in as a requirement to see the presentation.
  • In the subject field, type in your name, period, and Amendment (Don’t send it as an unnamed person with a blank subject field!) Failure to do so will result in the loss of 3 points.
  • This project is worth 80 points.

EVALUATION

  • Evaluation of this activity will be based on…
  • Quality and accuracy of your research
  • Visual presentation of your PowerPoint show
  • Your preparedness (spelling, pronunciation, and grammar) during your presentation

This project is worth 80 points.
Due Date: Wednesday, 05/20/2015


Econ: Beige Book Project (30 Points) – Due on Friday, 05/15/15

May 13, 2015

STEP 1

Access the summary section for the beige books from the link below and read it to gain an overview of the health of the economy for the United States as a whole.

http://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook/beigebook201504.htm?summary

State whether the economy has improved since the last report.

The last beige book can be found here…
http://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/beigebook/beigebook20150304.htm

STEP 2

District Beige Book Task
Rate the strength of each sector on a scale of 1-5 to judge the strength of that sector.
Then prioritize four sectors to determine which sectors need help most urgently and write a summary for each sector to explain your choice.

STEP 3
Report the economic situation for your district to the class by creating a PowerPoint presentation.
As a group, come to a consensus on the 4 sectors needing help the most and explain why.

Each presentation will last no more than 4 minutes.

STEP 4

Also include this step as part of your presentation.
Assessment- “Using the information you gained from the beige book, make a recommendation for the Fed to change the Federal Funds Rate. How would that change impact the 4 sectors that need the most help?”

THE PROCESS

  • Divide the work up evenly with your partners working on each assignment.
  • Include a picture for every slide to enhance your presentation.
  • Proofread all work carefully.
  • Make your PowerPoint show colorful and pleasing to the eye.
  • Minimum font size should be 24.
  • Practice your presentation several times before it is your turn to present. Since you have full control of the content in the presentation, be sure that it is free of spelling / grammatical errors and that you know how to pronounce every word in your presentation.
  • Share your presentation with me through Google Docs by sending it to my email at mkhsko@yahoo.com. Please do not require me to sign-in as a requirement to see the presentation.
  • In the subject field, type in your name, period, and Amendment (Don’t send it as an unnamed person with a blank subject field!) Failure to do so will result in the loss of 3 points.

This project is worth 30 points.

EVALUATION

Evaluation of this activity will be based on…

  • Quality and accuracy of your research
  • Visual presentation of your PowerPoint show
  • Your preparedness (spelling, pronunciation, and grammar) during your presentation

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