06/22/17 Homework

June 22, 2017

Chapter 11 Review – Copy and answer questions 1-14 and 18-24 on page 316.

Chapter 12: Congress in Action
Section 3: How a Bill Becomes a Law – The House

Detailed Process of How a Bill Becomes a Law.

1. A bill is a…
2. The ideas for bills can come from…
3. A resolution deals with matters that…
4. A joint resolution is like a bill because…
5. A concurrent resolution deals with…
6. At a first reading of a bill, the clerk…
7. Five actions that a committee may take on a bill are…
8. Due to the size of the House, no member can debate about a bill…
9. Four types of votes in the House are…
10. After a bill has been passed and signed by the Speaker, it is…

Chapter 12: Congress in Action
Section 4: The Bill in the Senate

Read the objectives on top of page 342.
Write an essay to achieve the objectives on page 342 by using all of the words below.

Bill, informal, committee, filibuster, cloture, veto, pocket veto, House, difference, unrestrained, three-fifths, Senate, conference committee, President, override, two-thirds, signature, law.

Important Instructions:
1. Make sure your essay is free of spelling and grammatical errors.
2. Underline all required terms used in your essay.


Chapter 11 Notes

June 22, 2017

Chapter 11: Congressional Powers
Section 3: Other Expressed Powers

Foreign Relations
Foreign relation powers are shared between Congress and President. President is responsible for relations with other countries. Because the states are not sovereign, Constitution doesn’t allow them to have foreign relation powers. Congress gain its powers through expressed powers and because U.S. is sovereign. Congress may act on matters affecting the security of the nation, such as immigration.

War Powers
The President is the commander in chief of the armed forces, but congressional powers are extensive and substantial. Only Congress may declare war, raise/support armies, provide/maintain a navy, and make rules pertaining to governance of naval forces. The War Powers Resolution of 1973 allows Congress has power to restrict the use of American forces where state of war doesn’t exist.

Other Expressed Powers
The congress has the power to control naturalization, the process by which citizens of one country become citizens of another. Another power it has is the control over postal services. Congress has established a number of crimes based on its postal powers such prohibiting the mailing of dangerous items such as firecrackers.

Weights and Measures
A standard scale of weights and measures in necessary to keep an uniform gauge of time, distance area, weight, and even volume. Congress sets the English system of pound, ounce, mile, foot, gallon, quart, etc as the legal standards and measures in this country. The National Institute of Standard and
Technology was created to keep the standards of measure for U.S.

Copyrights and Patents
Congress has the power to grant copyrights and patents. A copyright is the exclusive right of an author to reproduce, publish, and sell his or her creative work for the live of the author plus 70 years. A patent grants a person the sole right to manufacture, and sell use any new useful improvement for up to twenty years.

Power over Territories and Other Areas
The Constitution gives Congress the power to acquire and manage federal territories such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands. In addition, it covers military and naval bases, arsenals, post offices, prisons, parks, forest preserves, and others. The Government can acquire properties through gifts or purchases, known as eminent domain.

Judicial Powers
Basically as part of the system of checks and balances, Congress has legislative powers as well as Judicial Powers. This includes the ability to create federal courts below the Supreme Court and the federal judiciary. Congress also has power to define federal crimes and punishments for violators. It has established more than one hundred federal crimes.

Chapter 11: Powers of Congress

Section 4: The Implied Powers

Thomas Jefferson and the strict constructionists believed that the new government had only
(1) those powers expressly granted to it by the Constitution
(2) those few other powers absolutely necessary to carrying out the expressed powers.

They were worried that “necessary and proper” would mean the new government have almost unlimited authority and enable the elimination of the reserved powers of the States.

Hamilton and other liberal constructionists thought the Constitution gave Congress the power to do anything that was reasonably related to the exercise of the expressed powers.

Today the words “necessary and proper” really mean “convenient and useful.”

McCulloch v. Maryland

Who:
The U.S. Government v. The State of Maryland
When:
1819
Conflict:
In 1816 Congress created the Second Bank of the United States.
In 1818 Maryland placed a tax on all notes issued by any bank doing business in the State but not chartered by the State legislature. The tax was aimed directly at the Second Bank’s branch in Baltimore.
James McCulloch, the bank’s cashier, purposely issued notes on which no tax had been paid. The State won a judgment against him in its own courts. Acting for McCulloch, the United States then appealed to the Supreme Court.
Maryland argued that the creation of the bank had been unconstitutional.
The United States argued that no State could lawfully tax any agency of the Federal Government.
Result:
The Supreme Court unanimously reversed the Maryland courts. It said that Congress was given “necessary and proper” powers to carry out four of the expressed powers of Congress: the taxing, borrowing, currency, and commerce powers.


06/21/17 Homework

June 21, 2017

1. Copy and answer questions 1-20 on page 286 to review Chapter 10.
2. Complete the questions below…

Chapter 11: The Powers of Congress
Section 2: The Expressed Powers of Money and Commerce

1. What are the purposes of taxes and summarize the limitations that the Constitution has placed on the taxation power of Congress.
2. Give the definitions and examples for direct tax and indirect tax.
3. How is public debt related to deficit spending?
4. What are the three major factors that are contributing for the increasing budget deficit since 2001?
5. What is the significance of the Gibbons v. Ogden case? (How did the Supreme Court redefine “Interstate Commerce”?)
6. Give three real life examples of how Congress uses its Commerce Power.
7. What are the limits of congressional commerce power?
8. Why did the nation need a uniform system of “hard money” that can be used a legal tender?
9. What is the purpose of a bankruptcy filing? Who has the power to regulate bankruptcy?


Chapter 10 Notes

June 21, 2017

Chapter 10: Congress
Section 2: The House of Representatives

Topic Summaries

Topic: Size and Term/Reapportionment
The House of Representatives has 435 members; each member serves a two year term. The number of seats of the House of Representatives is distributed, apportioned, depending on the population of the state. Each state has to have one representative. There is no Constitutional limit to how many terms a member can serve. According to Article I of the Constitution, Congress is to reapportion, or redistribute, the seats of the House every ten years. After the 1910 census, the seats in the House of Representatives hit the number of 435. In order to clarify the reapportion process, Congress passed the Reapportionment Act of 1929, which states the permanent size of the House is 435 seats, census bureau is to determine how many seats is to have, the President send the Bureau’s plan to Congress, and if the House does not reject the plan within 60 days, it becomes effective.

Topic: Congressional Elections / Date / Off-Year Elections / Districts

Congressional elections are held on the same day in every state. Since 1872 Congress has required that those elections be held on the Tuesday following the first Monday in November. Off- year elections are congressional elections that occur in the nonpresidential years. There are 428 congressional districts within the other 43 states. Most States quickly set up single- member districts. Several States used the general tickets system, however. Under that arrangement, all of the States seats were filled at- large- that is, elected from the State as a whole, rather than from a particular district. In 1842 law made each State legislature responsible for drawing any congressional districts within its own State. It also required that each congressional district be made up of “contiguous territory,” meaning that it must be all one piece. In 1901 it further directed that all the districts be of “compact territory”- a comparatively small area.

Topic: Gerrymandering / Wesberry v. Sanders, 1964
Gerrymandering is basically shaping the district lines for the advantage of one group. It is widespread throughout the nation today in two forms. First, it is to relocate a group of opposition into a few districts. This would make the opposition have no control over the other districts and allowing the dominant party to be safe in those districts. Secondly, gerrymandering occurs when the opposition is distributed throughout all the districts so the opposition is weak. The case of Wesberry v. Sanders is about Georgia gerrymandering so much that it became unconstitutional. This decision reinforced the ideology of “one man one vote”. Gerrymandering based on race is in violation of the 15th Amendment. The decision of Bush v Vera in 1996 ruled these “majority and minority” districts to be unconstitutional and that race cannot be used to draw district lines in order to send more African Americans or Latinos to Congress.

Topic: Qualifications for House members; Formal/Informal Qualifications
There are two types of qualifications for house members. They are formal and informal qualifications. For a formal qualification, the constitution says that a member of the house must be at least 25 years of age, must have been a citizen of the united states for at least seven years, and must be a inhabitant of the state from which he or she is elected. The house may refuse to seat a member elect by majority vote. it may also punish its members for disorderly behavior by majority vote, and with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member. Only a few members have resigned to avoid certain expulsion. The other type of qualification is informal qualification. They include the candidate’s vote-getting abilities, which are such factors as party identification, name familiarity, gender, ethnicity, and political experience.

Chapter 10: Congress

Section 3: The Senate

1. How many Senators are in the Senate?
100
2. What is the length of a term in the Senate?
6 Years
3. What is the effect of the 17th Amendment on the Senate?
It allowed the voters to pick their Senators.
4. What is the limit on the number of terms that a Senator may serve?
There is no limit.
5. Why is the Senate called a “continuous body”?
It is because that all the seats in the Senate are never up for election at the same time.
6. Why did the framers of the Constitution give senators six-year terms?
They hoped the longer terms would make senators less reactive to popular sentiment. Many of the framers thought that the House, with shorter terms, would be too often swayed by the immediate impact of events.
7. What senator was elected to the most terms?
Robert Byrd. 51 years from 1959-2010
8. According to the Constitution, what two requirements are different for a senator than for a member of the House?
A senator must be 30, not 25. A senator must have been a U.S. citizen for nine years, not seven.

9. What is the effect of the difference in constituencies between senators and House members?

Senators focus on the “big picture” nationally. They are less interested in the concerns of a small locality and more focused on the national picture.
10. The Constitution said that __________ would choose senators.
State legislatures


Bill of Rights Project

June 21, 2017

This project is worth 80 points.

Due Date: 06/26/17

Complete the following steps and present the information to your classmates in Google Slides.

Tasks for the Project…

1. Include the original text of the Amendment.
2. Give your personal interpretation of the Amendment.
3. Answer the question:
Why was this Amendment added to the Constitution? In other words, provide some historical information as to why the Amendment was incorporated into the Bill of Rights.
4. Provide two specific examples from either past or present illustrating use of this Amendment.
Use the Internet or newspapers to complete this task.
5. List and explain one Supreme Court case in which the Amendment was used as an argument in support of the case. You need to include…
When
Who was involved
The Conflict
The result
The significance
6. Create a poem/rap/song (music video) to express all the rights protected by the Bill of Rights (All ten amendments). Yes, it must RHYME!
7. Include a relevant (professionally produced) video for your chosen amendment. Keep it under 4 minutes.

THE PROCESS

Divide the work up evenly with your partners working on each assignment.
Include a picture for every slide to enhance your presentation.
Proofread all work carefully.
Make your Google Slides colorful and pleasing to the eye.
Minimum font size should be 24.
Practice your presentation several times before it is your turn to present. Since you have full control of the content in the presentation, be sure that it is free of spelling / grammatical errors and that you know how to pronounce every word in your presentation.
Share your presentation with me through Google Slides by sending it to my email at ko_charles@ausd.us. Please do not require me to sign-in as a requirement to see the presentation.
In the title of the presentation, type in your names, period, and Amendment (Don’t send it as an unnamed person with a blank subject field!) Failure to do so will result in the loss of 10 points.

EVALUATION

Evaluation of this activity will be based on…
Quality and accuracy of your research
Visual presentation of your Google Slides show
Your preparedness (spelling, pronunciation, and grammar) during your presentation


06/20/17 Homework

June 20, 2017

Copy and answer questions 1-15 and 21-25 on page 204 and questions 21-25 on page 232 in Cornell format to review Chapter 7 and 8.


Chapter 7 and 8 Notes

June 20, 2017

Chapter 7: The Electoral Process
Section 1: The Nominating Process
Nomination is a critical step in the election process.
• Those who make nominations narrow the choices that voters have in an election.
Various Nominating Methods:
1. Self-Announcement:
• Oldest form of the nominating process.
• A person who wants to run for office simply announces that fact.
• Sometimes used by someone who failed to win a regular party nomination or by someone unhappy with the party’s choice.
• Arnold Schwarzenegger was elected into office through this method.
2. Caucus:
• A group of like-minded people who meet to select the candidates they will support in an upcoming election.
• Often criticized for their closed, unrepresentative character.
3. Convention:
• Elected delegates select their party’s nominees.
• The national convention is where the party selects its presidential and vice-presidential candidates.
• Party bosses could manipulate the process by playing with the selection of delegates to influence the outcome.
4. Direct Primary:
• Held within a party to pick that party’s candidates for the general election.
• Regulated by states.
• State usually sets the dates and also conducts the primaries.
• The State also provides polling places and election officials, registration lists and ballots, and monitors the process.
4A Closed Primary:
• A party’s nominating election in which only declared party members can vote.
4B Open Primary:
• Any qualified voter can cast a ballot.
• A voter must make a choice of party in order to vote in the primary either publicly or in private.
• 2000, three States used a different version of the open primary—the blanket primary, sometimes called the “wide-open primary” where the voters could participate however they chose.
5. Petition:
• Eligible voters sign petition in support of a candidate.
• Mostly done at the local level
• The higher the office, the more signatures needed.

Chapter 7: The Electoral Process

Section 3: Money and Elections

1. List the election related expenses that are paid by the campaign funds.
• Radio and television time, professional campaign managers and consultants, newspaper advertisements, pamphlets, buttons, posters and bumper stickers, office rent, polls, data processing, mass mailings, Web sites, travel—these and a host of other items make up the huge sums spent in campaigns.
• Television ads are far and away the largest item in most campaign budgets today, even at the local level.

2. Explain the different methods through which campaign funds are acquired.
• Small contributors—those who give $5 or $10 or so, and only occasionally.
• Wealthy individuals and families—the “fat cats,” who can make large donations and find it in their best interest to make them.
• Candidates—both incumbents and challengers, their families, and, importantly, people who hold and want to keep appointive public offices.
• Various nonparty groups—especially political action committees (PACs). Political action committees are the political arms of special-interest and other organizations with a stake in electoral politics.
• Temporary organizations—groups formed for the immediate purposes of a campaign, including fund-raising.
• Then, too, parties and their candidates often hold fund-raisers of various sorts. The most common are $100-, $500-, and $1,000-a-plate luncheons, dinners, picnics, receptions, and similar gatherings.
• Direct mail requests, telethons, and Internet solicitations are also among the oft-used tools of those who raise campaign money.
• Public funds—subsidies from the federal and some State treasuries—are now another prime source of campaign money. A subsidy is a grant of money, usually from a government.

3. Why do people make campaign donations?
• Most want something in return. They want access to government, and hope to get it by helping their “friends” win elections.
• Some big donors want appointments to public office, and others want to keep the ones they have.
• Others want certain laws passed, changed, or repealed, or certain administrative actions taken.

4. What is the job of the Federal Election Commission? What are the four areas it must watch in regards to campaign finance?
• It administers all federal law dealing with campaign finance.
• They (1) require the timely disclosure of campaign finance data, (2) place limits on campaign contributions, (3) place limits on campaign expenditures, and (4) provide public funding for several parts of the presidential election process.

5. What are the current disclosure requirements for federal campaigns?
• No individual or group can make a contribution in the name of another.
• Cash gifts of more than $100 are prohibited. So are contributions from any foreign source.
• All contributions to a candidate for federal office must be made through a single campaign committee. Only that committee can spend that candidate’s campaign money.
• Any contribution or loan of more than $200 must be identified by source and by date.
• Any spending over $200 must also be identified by the name of the person or firm to whom payment was made, by date, and by purpose.
• Any contribution of more than $5,000 must be reported to the FEC no later than 48 hours after it is received. So, too, must any sum of $1,000 or more that is received in the last 20 days of a campaign.

6. What are current limits placed on campaign contributions?
• Today, no person can give more than $2,100 to any federal candidate in a primary election, and no more than $2,100 to any federal candidate’s general election campaign.
• No person can give more than $5,000 in any year to a political action committee, or $26,700 to a national party committee.
• The total of any person’s contributions to federal candidates and committees now must be limited to no more than $101,400 in an election cycle.

7. What are PACs? What are their campaign contribution limits?
• PAC = Political Action Committee. PACs are the political arms of special-interest groups—business, labor, professional, cause, and other organizations that try to influence government policies.
• No PAC can give more than $5,000 to any one federal candidate in an election, or $10,000 per election cycle (primary and general election).
• However, there is no overall limit on PAC giving to candidates. Each PAC can give up to $5,000 per election to each of as many candidates as it chooses. A PAC may also contribute up to $15,000 a year to a political party.

8. How do soft money and hard money differ?
• Hard money is raised and spent to elect candidates for Congress and the White House.
• Soft money is given to party organizations for such “party-building activities” as candidate recruitment, voter registration and get-out-the-vote drives, and similar efforts.

9. How do political groups get around the provisions of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (the BCRA) of 2002?
• BCRA does not say that other political groups cannot raise and spend those dollars. Almost immediately, a number of independent groups—groups with no formal ties to any party—emerged to do just that.
• It is basically a way to skirt the ban on soft money. Some $200 million poured through that loophole in 2004.

Chapter 8: Mass Media and Public Opinion
Section 3: Mass Media
How do you get your news?

A medium is a means of communication; it transmits some kind of information. Media is the plural of medium.
Four major mass media in American politics
TV
There is at least one television set in 98 percent of the nation’s 110 c million households.
1,700 television stations in this country include more than 1,400 commercial outlets and over 300 public broadcasters.
ABC, CBS, and NBC furnish about 90 percent of the programming for some 700 local stations which accounts for about 45 percent of all television viewing time today.
Newspaper
The 1st Amendment protected the newspapers with its guarantee of the freedom of the press.
Today, more than 10,000 newspapers are published in the United States. About 45 percent of the nation’s adult population read a newspaper every day, and they spend, on average, a half hour doing so.
The number of daily newspapers has been declining for decades due to the development of the

Internet.
Most newspapers cover stories in greater depth than television does, and many try to present various points of view in their editorial sections.

Internet
Nearly a quarter of the population stated that they “regularly” learn something about the presidential campaigns from the Internet, up from 13 percent in 2004.
The Internet is still trailing TV news and daily newspapers, but is now beating morning TV shows and radio.

Radio
Many people thought that television would bring the end of radio as a major medium.
Radio has survived because it is so conveniently available.

The average person hears 20 hours of radio each week and there are more than 13,000 stations on the AM and FM dials.
Over recent years, talk radio has become an important source of political comment. The opinions and analyses offered a number of talk show hosts can be found on hundreds of stations across the country.
Talks shows which focus on political issues that invite callers for discussions have the most influence in politics.

Magazines
For decades before radio and television, magazines constituted the only national medium.
Three news magazines, Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News & World Report have a combined circulation of nearly 10 million copies a week.

Critical Thinking
1. What power do the media have over public agenda?
The media have the power to focus the public’s attention on a particular issue. They do so by emphasizing some things and ignoring or downplaying others. For example, they feature certain items on the front page or at the top of the newscast and bury others. It is not correct to say that the media tell the people what to think; but it is clear that they tell the people what to think about. Top political figures in and out of government pay close and continuing attention to these sources.
2. How do candidates manipulate media coverage to their advantage?
They plan campaigns that emphasize maximum television exposure with considerations as timing and location at the expense of such substantive matters as the issues involved in an election or a candidate’s qualifications for public office. Good campaign managers also know that most television news programs are built out of stories that (1) take no more than a minute or two of air time, and (2) show people doing something interesting or exciting. Newscasts seldom feature “talking heads,” speakers who drone on and on about some complex issue. Instead, newscasts featuring candidates are usually short, sharply focused sound bites—snappy reports that can be aired in 30 or 45 seconds or so. Staged and carefully orchestrated visits to places like historic sites, factory gates, and toxic-waste dumps.
3. What factors are limiting the influence of the media on the public?
Few people follow international, national, or even local political events very closely. Many studies of voting behavior show that in the typical election, only about 10 percent of those who can vote and only about 15 percent of those who do vote are well informed on the many candidates and issues under consideration in that election. In short, only a small part of the public actually takes in and understands much of what the media have to say about public affairs.
Moreover, most people who do pay some attention to politics are likely to be selective about it. That is, they most often watch, listen to, and read those sources that generally agree with their own viewpoints.
Advertisers who pay the high costs of television air time want to reach the largest possible audiences.
Because most people are more interested in being entertained than in being informed about public issues, few public-affairs programs air in prime time.
Like voting and other forms of political participation, being an informed citizen requires some effort.