07/18/16 Homework Chapter 15 Notes

July 18, 2016

Homework:
1. Copy and answer questions 1-20 on page 546.
2. Complete the Google Slides presentation for chapter 15.

NOTES
Ch. 15: The Cold War
Sec. 1: The Cold War Unfolds

The Cold War was a state of diplomatic hostility that developed between the two superpowers.
In 1950, President Truman was determined to beat USSR in the arms race by developing thermonuclear weapons (H-bomb) that were thousands of times more powerful than the A-bomb.
In order for the practice of brinkmanship to be effective, the U.S. had to have a reliable source of nuclear weapons and airplanes to deliver them.

The Cold War affected more than just pace of nuclear weapons development, but it also caused the U.S. and the USSR to develop their science and education programs.

At the end of WWII, the Soviet Union’s major goal was…to shield itself from another invasion from the west.
Stalin ignored the agreements made in Yalta and placed Communist governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and Yugoslavia.

In 1946, Stalin declared that communism and capitalism could not exist in the same world and that war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union was certain.
After the Yalta Conference, Germany was split into 2 sections with West having democratic government and East being communist (Berlin was in East Germany, but the city was split into East and West)

The “iron curtain” is a symbol of Europe’s division between a mostly democratic Western Europe and a Communist Eastern Europe.
The U.S. president Truman’s policy of containment was directed at blocking Soviet influences and preventing the expansion of communism.
The Truman doctrine was a U.S. policy that supported countries that rejected communism, but some people opposed it because…
1. It interfered in other nations’ business (sovereignty).
2. The U.S. did not have the resources.
3. U.S. could be giving aid to dictators.

Finish the incomplete statements below…
1. During the 1980s, U.S. President Ronald Reagan launched a program to build a “Star Wars” missile defense against nuclear attack.
2. American and Soviet arms control agreements led to an era of détente during the 1970s.
3. In 1959, Fidel Castro led his guerilla army to victory in the Cuban Revolution and set about transforming Cuba.
4. In 1962, the Soviet Union sent nuclear missiles to Cuba. President Kennedy responded by imposing a naval blockade that prevented further Soviet shipments. Kennedy demanded that the Soviet Union remove its nuclear missiles. After few tense days, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev agreed to remove the Soviet missiles, and war was averted.
5. Containment was an American strategy of containing communism, or keeping it within its existing boundaries and preventing further expansion.
6. The Soviet Union sought to spread their communist ideology, or value system and beliefs, around the globe.
7. The economies of Western Europe and the United States can be called mixed economies, where consumers and producers make economic decisions, yet the government also plays an economic role.
8. The nuclear threat led many people in the U.S. to build fallout shelters underneath their back yards in preparation for an attack.
9. To stop the exodus of East Berliners, the East Germans built a wall that sealed off West Berlin.
10. Critics were concerned that the “Star Wars” program would violate the ABM treaty, which might provoke a renewed arms race.

Ch. 15 The Cold War
Section 2: The Industrialized Democracies

The Importance of the U.S. During the Cold War
The headquarters of the newly formed United Nations was built in New York City.
Other nations needed American goods and services, and foreign trade helped the United States achieve a long postwar boom.
The World Bank, an international agency that finances world economic development, was headquartered in Washington, D.C.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF), which oversees the finances of the world’s nations, was based there as well.

Postwar Boom in America

During the 1950s and 1960s, boom times prevailed. Recessions, or periods when the economy shrinks, were brief and mild.
As Americans grew more affluent, many moved from the cities to the suburbs. The movement to communities outside an urban core is known as suburbanization.
Suburbanites typically lived in single-family houses with lawns and access to good schools.
Suburban highways allowed residents to commute to work by car.
Many Americans also moved to the Sunbelt, or the states in the South and Southwest of the United States.
Jobs in these states were becoming more plentiful than in the industrialized North, and the warmer climate was an added bonus.
The growing availability of air conditioning and water for irrigation in states such as Arizona helped make the movement to the Sunbelt possible.

The federal government contributed to the economic boom.
Under President Truman, Congress created programs that helped veterans, the elderly, and the poor.
Dwight Eisenhower, approved government funding to build a vast interstate highway system.

An Oil Shock Brings Recession
In the early 1970s, a political crisis in the Middle East led to decreased oil exports. Oil prices soared worldwide.
Waiting in long lines for scarce and expensive gasoline, Americans became aware of their dependence on imported oil and on global economic forces.
In America, higher prices for oil left businesses and consumers with less to spend on other products.
The decades of postwar prosperity ended with a serious recession in 1974.

Democracy Expands Opportunities
After the war, many states still denied equality to African Americans and other minority groups.
These groups faced legal segregation, or forced separation, in education and housing.
Minorities also suffered discrimination—unequal treatment or barriers—in jobs and voting.
After World War II, President Harry Truman desegregated the armed forces.
Then, in 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court made a landmark ruling, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, declaring that segregated schools were unconstitutional.
By 1956, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. had emerged as a leader of the civil rights movement. This movement aimed to extend equal rights to all Americans, and particularly African Americans. King organized boycotts and led peaceful marches to end segregation in the United States.
Eventually, The U.S. Congress outlawed public segregation, protected voting rights, and required equal access to housing and jobs.
Poverty, unemployment, and discrimination still plagued many African Americans.

Inspired by the civil rights movement, women fought gender-based discrimination during the 1960s and 1970s.
The women’s rights movement won laws banning discrimination against women.

During the 1960s, the government further expanded social programs to help the poor and disadvantaged.
Under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson, both Democrats, Congress funded Medicare, providing health care for the elderly.
Other programs offered housing for the poor.

In the 1980s, President Reagan and the Republican Party called for cutbacks in taxes and government spending.
They argued that cutting taxes was the best way to improve opportunities for Americans.
Congress ended some social programs, reduced government regulation of the economy, and cut taxes. At the same time, however, military spending increased.
The combination of increased spending and tax cuts greatly increased the national budget deficit, or the shortfall between what the government spends and what it receives in taxes and other income.

Chapter 15: The Cold War
Section 3: Communism Spreads in East Asia

By the end of World War II, the Chinese Communists had gained control of much of northern China.
Communist forces led by Mao Zedong fought a civil war against Nationalists headed by Jiang Jieshi.
Mao’s forces swept to victory and set up the People’s Republic of China.
The defeated Nationalists fled to the island of Taiwan.

How the Communists Won
Mao had won the support of China’s huge peasant population.
The Communists redistributed land to poor peasants and ended oppression by landlords.

The Nationalists lost popularity
Jiang’s policies had led to widespread economic hardship.
Corruption in Jiang’s government.
Peasants hoped that the Communists would build a new China and end foreign domination.

Critical Thinking
1. Describe the Communist ideology according to Mao.
The Communist government discouraged the practice of Buddhism, Confucianism, and other traditional Chinese beliefs.
The government seized the property of rural landlords and urban business owners throughout China.
Opponents of the Communists were put down as “counterrevolutionaries.” Thousands of people who had belonged to the propertied middle class, or “bourgeoisie,” were accused of counterrevolutionary beliefs. They were then beaten, sent to labor camps, or killed.

2. What is the “Great Leap Forward”? Was it a successful program?
Mao urged people to make a superhuman effort to increase farm and industrial output. In an attempt to make agriculture more efficient, he created communes. A typical commune brought together several villages, thousands of acres of land, and up to 25,000 people. Rural communes set up small-scale “backyard” industries to produce steel and other products.
Backyard industries turned out low-quality, useless goods. The commune system cut food output partly by removing incentives for individual farmers and families, leading to neglect of farmland and food shortages. Bad weather added to the problems and led to a terrible famine.
Between 1959 and 1961, as many as 55 million Chinese are thought to have starved to death.

3. What was the purpose of the Cultural Revolution? Who was affected?
The goal was to purge China of “bourgeois” tendencies. He urged young Chinese to experience revolution firsthand, as his generation had.
Red Guards attacked those they considered bourgeois. The accused were publicly humiliated or beaten, and sometimes even killed. Skilled workers and managers were forced to leave their jobs and do manual labor on rural farms or in forced labor camps. Schools and factories closed.

4. Why did the U.S. government decide to allow People’s Republic of China to replace Taiwan in the United Nations in 1971?
From the American point of view, there were strategic advantages to improving relations with Communist China after its split with the Soviet Union.
By “playing the China card,” as this strategy was sometimes called, the United States might isolate the Soviets between NATO in the west and a hostile China in the east.

Part 2

After Japan’s defeat in World War II, Soviet and American forces agreed to divide Korea temporarily along the 38th parallel of latitude.
North Korea, ruled by the dictator Kim Il Sung, became a communist ally of the Soviet Union.

In South Korea, the United States backed the dictatorial—but noncommunist—leader, Syngman Rhee.

The Soviets supplied N. Korea with tanks, planes, and money.
In June of 1950, N. Korea invaded S. Korea.
The United Nations Security Council condemned the invasion.
The United States then organized a United Nations force to help South Korea.
United Nations forces stopped N. Korea in August along a line known as the Pusan Perimeter.

N. Korea controlled most of the Korean peninsula by September of 1950.
MacArthur launched a surprise attack to force the N. Koreans to retreat and surrender.

By October of 1950, the Chinese felt threatened by the American fleet off of their coast.
China sent 300,000 troops into N. Korea to aid the Communist and eventually captured Seoul.
The UN forces were greatly outnumbered by the Chinese forces.
General MacArthur called for a nuclear attack against Chinese cities.

In July of 1953, the UN forces and N. Korea signed a cease fire agreement.
The border is set at 38th parallel. The border is about the same as before the war started, but 5 million soldiers and civilians were killed.

Effects of the war on N. Korea and S. Korea.

N. Korea:
Kim Il Sung established collective farms.
Kim Jong Il took over after his father died and developed nuclear weapons.

Has severe economic problems with food and energy shortage.

S. Korea:
Developed its industry and boosted foreign trade.
During the 80s and 90s, it had tremendous economic growth.
Adopted a democratic constitution in 1987 with free elections.
U.S. maintains about 37,000 troops in S. Korea.

Why/How did Korea get divided in 1945?
After Japan’s defeat in World War II, Soviet and American forces agreed to divide Korea temporarily along the 38th parallel of latitude.
However, North Korea, ruled by the dictator Kim Il Sung, became a communist ally of the Soviet Union. In South Korea, the United States backed the dictatorial—but noncommunist—leader, Syngman Rhee.
Reason for U.S. get involved in Korea?
The U.S. wanted to stop the spread of communism in Asia,
China’s involvement in the Korean War.
The success of the U.S.-led forces alarmed China. In late November of 1950 , Mao Zedong sent hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops to help the North Koreans.
In tough winter fighting, the Chinese and North Koreans forced United Nations troops back to the south of the 38th parallel.
Result of the Korean War?
Finally, in 1953, both sides signed an armistice, or end to fighting.
Nearly two million North Korean and South Korean troops remained dug in on either side of the demilitarized zone (DMZ), an area with no military forces, near the 38th parallel.
The armistice held for the rest of the Cold War, but no peace treaty was ever negotiated.

Chapter 15: The Cold War
Section 4: War in Southeast Asia

Critical Thinking Questions

1. Why did the U.S. get involved in Vietnam during the 1950s?
The U.S. put the Containment policy into practice in order to stop the spread of communism.
2. Which nations had control of Vietnam in the 20th century?
France and Japan.
3. Why did the U.S. help France to stop the Vietnamese nationalist movement?
Because President Eisenhower feared that if Vietnam becomes a communist nation, it would just be a matter of time before the other Southeast Asian nations follow the path of Vietnam (domino theory.)
4. Describe President Eisenhower’s domino theory in your own words.
It was a view that expressed the fear of communism spreading across southeast Asia. President Eisenhower worried that if South Vietnam were taken over by Ho Chi Minh, the rest of the neighboring countries in that region would topple over and fall under communist control like a row of dominoes falling over one by one.
5. Why was Ho Chi Minh more popular than the South Vietnamese government leader Ngo Dinh Diem?
Because Ngo Dinh Diem ruled as a dictator while Ho Chi Minh redistributed land to the people of Vietnam.
6. What is the significance of the Gulf of Tonkin incident in 1964?
It was the event that caused Congress to authorize the President to send troops into Vietnam.
7. What were the difficulties faced by the American military in fighting the Vietcong?
They were fighting a guerilla war in an unfamiliar territory. The U.S. troops weren’t sure who the enemy was.
The South Vietnamese government supported by the U.S. was not popular with the Vietnamese people.
8. Describe President Nixon’s plan of Vietnamization.
It will allow the U.S. to pull out of Vietnam while the South would increase their share of responsibility in the war.
9. How was Cambodia affected by the Vietnam War?
It was bombed by the U.S. to weed out the hiding Vietcongs.
In 1975, the Communist party known as the Khmer Rouge (led by Pol Pot) took over the government and slaughtered 2 million people.
10. After the N. Vietnamese took over the South, what happened?
Thousands were sent to “reeducation camps” to learn communist ideals.
1.5 million (boat) people fled Vietnam with many settling in the United States.

Chapter 15: The Cold War
Section 5: The End of Cold War

The Soviet Union’s Problems
Its command economy could not keep up with the amount needed to maintain the arms race, nor could it meet consumers’ needs.
1979-Got involved in guerilla war in Afghanistan that it could not find a way to win.
Mikhail Gorbachev signed arms control treaties and pulled out of Afghanistan. He began a policy of openness (glasnost), ending censorship, and allowed limited private enterprise. These policies caused many to lose their jobs and some of the Soviet republics to demand independence. In 1991, the Soviet Union was dissolved.

Eastern Europe
Some Eastern European countries, such as Hungary and Poland, began to seek political reforms before Gorbachev came into office.
The East German Government, however, was not ready for Gorbachev’s reforms when they came and banned Soviet publications.
Communist governments soon began to fall in Eastern Europe. Old borders changed when Czechoslovakia became two countries.

Other Parts of the World
After the breakup of the Soviet Union, China continued its capitalistic experiments but held onto one-party rule.
Vietnam established diplomatic ties with the U.S.
North Korea, however, has maintained its economic and political systems.
The U.S. emerged as the leading military power and has used its might in conflicts around the world. Some people have welcomed its efforts and some have despised them.

Complete the following sentences…

1. The command economy in the Soviet Union did not give workers enough incentive to…
produce better quality goods.
2. Vaclav Havel was elected president of Czechoslovakia after the Soviet Union said…
it would not interfere with reform movements in Eastern Europe.
3. When Nicolae Ceauosescu, Romania’s longtime dictator, refused to step down in 1989, he was…
overthrown and executed.
4. Mujahedin, or Muslim religious warriors, fought a guerilla war against…
Soviet troops in Afghanistan.
5. In 1980, economic hardships in Poland ignited…
strikes by shipyard workers, who would then go on to organize Solidarity.
6. In 1992, the Slovaks and Czechs peacefully agreed to divide…
Czechoslovakia into Slovakia and the Czech Republic.
7. Beginning in 1979, the Soviet Union fought a war in Afghanistan resulted in years of…
heavy casualties, high costs, and few successes.
8. The Pope, who was originally from Poland with the name Karol Wojtyoa, met with Solidarity leaders when he…
visited Poland and criticized communist policies.
9. The economies of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union stagnated during the Cold War. It caused some in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to…
envy the prosperity of the West.
10. Gorbachev sought to avoid Cold War confrontations and bring about reforms because…
the war was dragging on in Afghanistan and the economy was struggling.


Semester 2 Final Exam Review – Due on Wednesday

July 14, 2016

Semester 2 Final Exam

Chapters Covered: 09-15

Directions:
• Write a relevant detailed statement for each of the items below.
• I will be expecting at least 4 pages of notes for this 60 point assignment.
• This is due on the day of your final exam.

Important Concepts

1. Amritsar Massacre and its significance
2. Sun Yixian and the Three Principles of the People
3. Mohandas Gandhi and his contribution to India
4. Twenty-one demands
5. Causes of the Mexican Revolution
6. Significance of Dunkirk
7. Invasion of Poland by Germany in WWII
8. Mussolini’s rule in Italy
9. Why did people support Mussolini?
10. Dawes Plan
11. Stalin’s collectives
12. Russification
13. Capitalism
14. How did Nazis discriminate against the Jews?
15. Conditions in the US in the 1920s
16. Nuremburg laws
17. Mao Zedong
18. Viet Cong
19. Khmer Rouge
20. Soviet Union’s ”Vietnam”
21. Japan’s invasion of Manchuria in 1931
22. New Deal
23. Characteristics of fascism
24. Tet Offensive
25. Karl Marx
26. Origin of Bangladesh
27. Creation of India and Pakistan
28. Japanese economy after WWI
29. Importance of Middle East region
30. Creation of Israel
31. Cause if Cold War
32. Cause and effect of Korean War
33. SALT
34. Changes in Japan after WWII
35. Objective of US diplomatic relations with China in the 70s
36. Changes in Soviet Union under Mikhail Gorbachev
37. Warsaw Pact
38. Détente
39. Stalin’s Great Purge
40. WWI’s Western Front
41. WWI’s Eastern Front
42. Schlieffen Plan
43. Treaty of Versailles
44. Cause of Britain’s participation in WWI
45. Cause of US participation in WWII
46. Mensheviks vs. Bolsheviks
47. Triple Alliance
48. Zimmerman note
49. Importance of Ottoman Empire
50. Effect of Nationalism
51. Fourteen Points
52. Island Hopping Strategy
53. Truman Doctrine
54. Blitzkrieg
55. How did Hitler violate Versailles Treaty?
56. Cause of Pearl Harbor attack
57. Manhattan Project
58. Kamikaze
59. Containment
60. Hitler’s reason to invade Soviet Union


Chapter 15-1 Notes

July 14, 2016

Chapter 14: World War II and Its Aftermath : 1931–1955
Section 1: From Appeasement to War (p.460)

Aggression goes unchecked
When the aggressive actions of dictators in Japan, Germany, and Italy went virtually unchallenged, these regimes grew bolder.
•The Western policy of appeasement and widespread pacifism fed the ambitions of the three countries, which formed a pact not to interfere in each other’s expansion.
Germany
Hitler annexed Austria and Czechoslovakia’s Sudetenland in his quest to bring all German-speaking people in to the Third Reich.
•Britain and France were not willing to go to war over either move.
When Germany seized the rest of Czechoslovakia, Britain and France decided they would move to stop Hitler if he attacked Poland.
The Acts of Aggression committed by the expansionist countries
Japan:
• Japan seized Manchuria in 1931. When the League of Nations condemned the aggression, Japan simply withdrew from the organization. Japan’s easy success strengthened the militarist faction in Japan.
• In 1937, Japanese armies overran much of eastern China, starting the Second Sino-Japanese War. Once again, Western protests did not stop Japan.
Italy:
• In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia, located in northeastern Africa. Although the Ethiopians resisted bravely, their outdated weapons were no match for Mussolini’s tanks, machine guns, poison gas, and airplanes.
Germany:
• Hitler built up the German military in defiance of the treaty that had ended World War I. Then, in 1936, he sent troops into the “demilitarized” Rhineland bordering France—another treaty violation.

Spanish Civil War
When: 1936
Who: Nationalists (Fascists) vs. Loyalists
Why:
In 1931, when popular unrest against the old order forced the king to leave Spain. A republic was set up with a new, more liberal constitution. The government passed a series of controversial reforms, taking land and privileges away from the Church and old ruling classes. Still, leftists demanded more radical reforms. Conservatives, backed by the military, rejected change.
In 1936, a conservative general named Francisco Franco led a revolt that touched off a bloody civil war. Fascists and supporters of right-wing policies, called Nationalists, rallied to back Franco. Supporters of the republic, known as Loyalists, included Communists, Socialists, and those who wanted democracy.
Result:
Hitler and Mussolini sent arms and forces to help Franco. The Soviet Union sent soldiers to fight against fascism alongside the Spanish Loyalists.
Both sides committed horrible atrocities. The ruinous struggle took more than 500,000 lives. By 1939, Franco had triumphed. Once in power, he created a fascist dictatorship similar to the dictatorships of Hitler and Mussolini. He rolled back earlier reforms, killed or jailed enemies, and used terror to promote order.

Critical Thinking
1. Why did the Western democracies ignore the aggressive acts of Germany and Italy?
•France was suffering from political division at home.
•Britain had no interest in confronting Hitler.
•They both saw that fascism was a better alternative to communism.
•Great Depression depleted resources necessary to fight another war.
•WWI left memories of atrocities and casualties.
2. In the mid-1930s, how did the U.S. respond to the possibility of the pending military conflicts in Europe?
•The United States Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts.
•One law forbade the sale of arms to any nation at war.
•Others outlawed loans to warring nations and prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of warring powers.
•The fundamental goal of American policy, however, was to avoid involvement in a European war, not to prevent such a conflict.
3. Which countries made up the Axis powers?
•Germany, Italy, and Japan formed what became known as the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. Known as the Axis powers, the three nations agreed to fight Soviet communism.
•They also agreed not to interfere with one another’s plans for territorial expansion.
4. What were Hitler’s goals for the Third Reich?
•Bringing all German-speaking people into the Third Reich.
•He also took steps to gain “living space” (lebensraum) for Germans in Eastern Europe.
•Hitler, who believed in the superiority of the German people, or “Aryan race,” thought that Germany had a right to conquer the inferior Slavs to the east. “Nature is cruel,” he claimed, “therefore we, too, may be cruel. . . .I have the right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds like vermin.”
5. Analyze the following statement of Winston Churchill… “They had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor; they will have war.”
•Churchill meant that if the western democracies do not take action against the aggressive acts of fascist nations, war will be imminent.
6. What were Stalin’s motives when he signed the Nazi-Soviet pact with Hitler (his greatest enemy)?
•Stalin had sought allies among the Western democracies against the Nazi menace. Mutual suspicions, however, kept them apart.
•By joining with Hitler, Stalin tried to protect the Soviet Union from the threat of war with Germany and grabbed a chance to gain land in Eastern Europe.


07/14/16 Homework and Notes

July 14, 2016

HOMEWORK:

Copy and answer questions 1-20 on page 496 to review Chapter 14.

Chapter 14-4

Copy and answer the questions below…

1. Which factors attributed to the Axis powers’ defeat by the Allies?
2. What strategy did General MacArthur use to fight the Japanese in the Pacific?
3. From the perspective of the United States, list all the advantages and drawbacks of using the atomic bombs on Japan during the war.
4. In your personal opinion, should the U.S. have used a destructive weapon such as the atomic bomb on Japan?

Chapter 14-5

Finish the incomplete statements below…
1. The Cold War was a state of tension and hostility between nations aligned with the United States on one side and…
2. The Truman Doctrine stated that the United States promised to…
3. Under the Marshall Plan, the United States spent billions of dollars in an attempt to help rebuild Western Europe. The United States feared that…
4. In 1949, the United States, Canada, and nine other countries formed a new military alliance called the…
5. In 1955, the Soviet Union responded to the creation of NATO by forming its own military alliance, the Warsaw Pact. It included the…
6. A total of 177 Germans and Austrians were tried, and 142 were found guilty of “crimes against humanity”, in trials that took place in…
7. The five permanent members of the UN Security Council are…
8. By 1948, pro-Soviet communist governments were in place…
9. The Soviet Union refused to relinquish control over eastern Germany, leading to a divided nation. West Germany became…
10. The Western Allies responded to the Soviet blockade of West Berlin by…

NOTES

Chapter 14: World War II and Its Aftermath : 1931–1955
Section 4: Victory in Europe and the Pacific

WAR IN EUROPE
By early spring 1945, the war in Europe was nearing its end, and the Allies turned their attention to winning the war in the Pacific.

March 1945 – the Allies had crossed the Rhine into western Germany. From the east, Soviet troops closed in on Berlin.
April 1945 – American and Russian soldiers met and shook hands at the Elbe River. All over Europe, Axis armies began to surrender. As Soviet troops fought their way into Berlin, Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker.
May 7, Germany surrendered. Officially, the war in Europe ended the next day, May 8, 1945, which was proclaimed V-E Day (Victory in Europe).

WAR IN ASIA
May 1942 – the Japanese had gained control of the Philippines, killing several hundred American soldiers and as many as 10,000 Filipino soldiers during the 65-mile Bataan Death March.
By 1944, the United States Navy, commanded by Admiral Chester Nimitz, was blockading Japan, and American bombers pounded Japanese cities and industries.
In October 1944, MacArthur began the fight to retake the Philippines. The British, meanwhile, were pushing Japanese forces back into the jungles of Burma and Malaya.
In bloody battles on the islands of Iwo Jima from February to March 1945 and Okinawa from April to July 1945, the Japanese had shown that they would fight to the death rather than surrender.
Some young Japanese men chose to become kamikaze (kah muh kah zee) pilots who undertook suicide missions, crashing their explosive-laden airplanes into American warships.
In July 1945, they successfully tested the first atomic bomb at Alamogordo, New Mexico.
The new American president, Harry Truman. Truman had taken office after Franklin Roosevelt died unexpectedly on April 12.
The Allies issued a warning to Japan to surrender or face “complete destruction” and “utter devastation” When the Japanese ignored the warning, the United States took action and used the atomic bombs.

The effects of the atomic bombings that took place in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Hiroshima -73,000 people died.
Nagasaki – 37,500 people died.
Many more died from the effect of radiation and related illnesses.

Chapter 14: World War II and Its Aftermath : 1931–1955
Section 5: The End of WWII

Destruction of WWII

60,595 London civilians dead
Warsaw’s (in Poland) population went from 1,289,000 to 153,000 from 1939-1945. Population decreased by 88% in six years.
95% of the City of Berlin was destroyed by Allied bombs.
Many were left homeless. No water and electricity and very little food.
Thousands died from famine.
Transportation system was destroyed.

What happened to the Nazis?

After the Nazis were defeated, the Allies held Nuremberg trials (1946) to decide the proper punishment for the crimes committed during the war.

Result: Only 22 Nazis were put on trial as war criminals. Of the 22 war criminals, 12 defendants were sentenced to death.

Effects of WWII on

Europe:
Agriculture was disrupted
Transportation was destroyed
Many died of famine
Communist Party membership skyrocketed

Japan:
Major cities destroyed by the Allies
2 million lives were lost to the war
Colonial empire was taken away
Demilitarization – disbanding of armed forces
Japanese empire was changed to parliamentary democracy
Broaden landownership
Increase participation of workers and farmers in the new democratic process
Emperor had to declare that he was not a god and was stripped of his political power.
A new constitution that stated Japan would never make war unless attacked upon. The constitution was designed by the Americans.

Creation of the United Nations

When: June, 1945
Where: To be based in New York
Purpose:
To create an international organization to protect its members against the aggression of another nation.
“To save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.”
Structure of the UN:
General Assembly: UN member nations
Security Council:
The nations in the council had the power to investigate and settle dispute.
Five permanent members include Britain, China, France, the Soviet Union (now Russian Federation), and the United States and ten non-permanent members
Each permanent member could veto any Security Council action. This was designed to prevent countries from voting as a bloc to dominate the others.


07/13/16 Homework and Notes

July 13, 2016

HOMEWORK
1. Copy and answer questions 1-21 on page 456 to review for your Chapter 13 test tomorrow.
2. Complete 3 pages of Cornell notes for Chapter 14-2 from page 466-474.

NOTES

Chapter 14: World War II and Its Aftermath : 1931–1955

Section 1: From Appeasement to War (p.460)

Aggression goes unchecked
When the aggressive actions of dictators in Japan, Germany, and Italy went virtually unchallenged, these regimes grew bolder.

The Western policy of appeasement and widespread pacifism fed the ambitions of the three countries, which formed a pact not to interfere in each other’s expansion.
Germany
Hitler annexed Austria and Czechoslovakia’s Sudetenland in his quest to bring all German-speaking people in to the Third Reich.

Britain and France were not willing to go to war over either move.
When Germany seized the rest of Czechoslovakia, Britain and France decided they would move to stop Hitler if he attacked Poland.

The Acts of Aggression committed by the expansionist countries

Japan:
Japan seized Manchuria in 1931. When the League of Nations condemned the aggression, Japan simply withdrew from the organization. Japan’s easy success strengthened the militarist faction in Japan.

In 1937, Japanese armies overran much of eastern China, starting the Second Sino-Japanese War. Once again, Western protests did not stop Japan.

Italy:
In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia, located in northeastern Africa. Although the Ethiopians resisted bravely, their outdated weapons were no match for Mussolini’s tanks, machine guns, poison gas, and airplanes.

Germany:
Hitler built up the German military in defiance of the treaty that had ended World War I. Then, in 1936, he sent troops into the “demilitarized” Rhineland bordering France—another treaty violation.

Spanish Civil War
When:
1936
Who:
Nationalists (Fascists) vs. Loyalists
Why:
In 1931, when popular unrest against the old order forced the king to leave Spain. A republic was set up with a new, more liberal constitution. The government passed a series of controversial reforms, taking land and privileges away from the Church and old ruling classes. Still, leftists demanded more radical reforms. Conservatives, backed by the military, rejected change.
In 1936, a conservative general named Francisco Franco led a revolt that touched off a bloody civil war. Fascists and supporters of right-wing policies, called Nationalists, rallied to back Franco. Supporters of the republic, known as Loyalists, included Communists, Socialists, and those who wanted democracy.

Result:
Hitler and Mussolini sent arms and forces to help Franco. The Soviet Union sent soldiers to fight against fascism alongside the Spanish Loyalists.
Both sides committed horrible atrocities. The ruinous struggle took more than 500,000 lives. By 1939, Franco had triumphed. Once in power, he created a fascist dictatorship similar to the dictatorships of Hitler and Mussolini. He rolled back earlier reforms, killed or jailed enemies, and used terror to promote order.

Critical Thinking
1. Why did the Western democracies ignore the aggressive acts of Germany and Italy?
France was suffering from political division at home.
Britain had no interest in confronting Hitler.
They both saw that fascism was a better alternative to communism.
Great Depression depleted resources necessary to fight another war.
WWI left memories of atrocities and casualties.
2. In the mid-1930s, how did the U.S. respond to the possibility of the pending military conflicts in Europe?
The United States Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts.
One law forbade the sale of arms to any nation at war.
Others outlawed loans to warring nations and prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of warring powers.
The fundamental goal of American policy, however, was to avoid involvement in a European war, not to prevent such a conflict.
3. Which countries made up the Axis powers?
Germany, Italy, and Japan formed what became known as the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. Known as the Axis powers, the three nations agreed to fight Soviet communism.
They also agreed not to interfere with one another’s plans for territorial expansion.
4. What were Hitler’s goals for the Third Reich?
Bringing all German-speaking people into the Third Reich.
He also took steps to gain “living space” (lebensraum) for Germans in Eastern Europe.
Hitler, who believed in the superiority of the German people, or “Aryan race,” thought that Germany had a right to conquer the inferior Slavs to the east. “Nature is cruel,” he claimed, “therefore we, too, may be cruel. . . .I have the right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds like vermin.”
5. Analyze the following statement of Winston Churchill… “They had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor; they will have war.”
Churchill meant that if the western democracies do not take action against the aggressive acts of fascist nations, war will be imminent.
6. What were Stalin’s motives when he signed the Nazi-Soviet pact with Hitler (his greatest enemy)?
Stalin had sought allies among the Western democracies against the Nazi menace. Mutual suspicions, however, kept them apart.
By joining with Hitler, Stalin tried to protect the Soviet Union from the threat of war with Germany and grabbed a chance to gain land in Eastern Europe.


WWII Project

July 13, 2016

Chapter 14: WWII and Its Aftermath

Topics:

  • Causes of the WWII
  • Technology of WWII
  • Hitler and The Nazis
  • The Holocaust / Nazi Concentration Camps
  • US Involvement in WWII
  • Pearl Harbor Attack
  • Total War During WWII
  • Japanese American Internment
  • Nuclear Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  • D-Day
  • Aftermath of the War
  • United Nations

The objective of this project is for you to portray your chosen topic accurately through a documentary style short film. You and your group members will work cooperatively to create an original video to demonstrate the results of your collaboration.

For your Documentary
1. Create a short video (3-5 minutes) to your assigned topic.
2. Be sure to include descriptive narration in your video production.
3. Upload your video to Youtube and share the link with me through my email at mkhsko@yahoo.com.
4. Be sure to include your group number, topic and names in the subject field of the email.
5. Bring the file on a USB flash drive as a backup plan.
Failure to follow instructions will result in loss of points!

This project is worth 80 points.
It is due on Monday, 07/18/16.


07/12/16 Homework

July 12, 2016

Complete 2 pages (4 pages total) of notes for each of the sections below.

Chaptrer 12, Section 3 from page 434-438.
Chapter 12, Section 4 from page 440-447.


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