Chapter 21: Civil Rights: Equal Justice Under Law
Section 4: American Citizenship
Classification of Aliens
Immigrants come to this country intending to live here permanently; but they do so first as an alien.
The federal government classifies aliens into 5 Categories:
1. Resident Alien – Someone who is in the country legally and holds a resident alien card. Can become a citizen in 5 years.
2. Nonresident Alien – Someone who is in the country legally, but hold a worker’s permit. Can only stay in the country for a limited amount of time.
3. Enemy Alien – Resident aliens who are citizens of the country that is involved in a war with the country that they’ve immigrated to.
4. Refugees – People seeking political asylum who have fled to this country to get away from persecution.
5. Illegal Alien – People that entered the country without going through the process set up by Immigration officials.
What does the 14th Amendment guarantee people of all races born in the United States?
It guarantees that anyone regardless of race born in the US and territories are US citizens, making state citizenship an automatic result of national citizenship. Therefore, states can’t make any laws to take away privileges endowed to the citizens by the Constitution.
What is the most common kind of citizenship in the United States?
Jus soli – law of the soil. Anyone born in the US or US territories is granted citizenship.
Is anyone born in the United States automatically a citizen?
Not if the parents are not subject to the jurisdiction of the US.
What are the requirements for citizenship?
a. Entered the country legally
b. Resided in the country for at least 5 years
c. Have good moral character
d. Support the principles of the American government (democracy)
e. Must read, write, and speak English
f. Show basic understanding of American government
What is collective naturalization, and give an example of collective naturalization?
It is when a group of people living in an area become American citizens. People of Hawaii were granted citizenship is 1900.
What happens during the final hearing stage of citizenship process?
The applicant will attend a hearing where he/she is asked to take an oath to defend the laws of the US and bear arms on behalf of the US as required by law.
What are the ways to lose citizenship?
Citizenship can be lost through expatriation, punishment for crimes such as treason or participation in rebellion, and denaturalization.
What will happen if a U.S. citizen becomes a naturalized citizen of another country?
He/she will lose citizenship automatically.
How can denaturalization occur?
If naturalization was gained through deception or if the naturalized citizen joins a communist organization within 5 years after receiving citizenship, denaturalization can occur.
Give three important responsibilities of American citizens?
a. Be aware of your legal rights and laws.
b. Participate in political life by understanding important civic issues.
Why do citizens need to participate in politics?
To maintain and ensure democracy.