1. Complete 2 pages of Cornell notes from page 332-336 for Chapter 10-3.
2. Copy and answer questions 1-19 on page 346 to review for the Chapter 10 test tomorrow.
Ch.10: New Global Patterns
Section 1: Japan Modernize
Find the effect of the following events.
1. 17th Century: Japan shuts its doors from all contact with other countries.
Japan was isolated for the next two centuries and lived in peace and relative prosperity.
2. 1853: U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry took four ships into the Tokyo Harbor and coerced Japan to open its port for trade.
The Japanese were intimidated by the modern weapons possessed by the Americans, so they decided to open up its port for trade.
3. 1854: Treaty of Kanagawa was signed.
Japan opened two ports to allow American ships to take on supplies. It also allowed the U.S. to set up an embassy in Japan.
4. 1860: Japan grants foreigners permission to trade at treaty ports and extends extraterritorial rights to many foreign nations.
Many Japanese citizens were angry due their strong national pride and their sense of nationalism.
5. 1867: The Japanese citizens were upset that the shogun had given into foreigners’ demands.
Tokugawa shogun stepped down from his leadership role and Japan’s young emperor Mutsuhito took over. He ruled from 1867-1912 in the period known as the Meiji Era-meaning enlightened rule.
Ch. 10: New Global Patterns
Sec. 2: Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific
Convert (noun), suppress, turmoil, resentment, treaty, entanglement, transition, annexation.
Nation: The Netherlands
Resources: Rubber, tin, oil, coffee, indigo, spices.
Colonies: Singapore, Malaysia, Burma (Myanmar)
Resources: S-A large sheltered Harbor
M-Tin and Rubber
B-Teak and Oil
Colonies: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
Resources: Rice for exportation
Christian missionaries moved into Vietnam and won some converts.
Vietnamese officials tried to suppress Christianity by killing converts and missionary priests.
In response, France invaded Vietnam in 1858.
Kingdom of Siam (Thailand)
King Mongkut, who ruled from 1851 to 1868, did not underestimate Western power.
To prevent Thailand from being colonized, he took the following actions…
Studied foreign languages and read widely on modern science and mathematics.
Negotiated with the Western powers and satisfy their goals in Siam by making agreements in unequal treaties.
Reformed the government, modernized the army, and hired Western experts to teach Thais how to use the new technology.
Abolished slavery and gave women some choice in marriage.
Promoted Siam as a neutral zone between Britain and France.
Built its own railroad and telegraph system.
Cause of conflicts between the Chinese and the native Malays
When the British encouraged the Chinese to immigrate to Malaysia, the Chinese became highly successful. Soon the Malays became a minority in their own country.
Positive effects of European colonization in Southeast Asia
Many economies grew as a result.
Roads, harbors, and rail systems were built to improve communication and trade.
Education and sanitation also received improvements.
Finish the incomplete sentences.
1. Filipino rebel leaders declared independence from Spain because…
they were encouraged by American naval officers.
2. As a result of the Spanish-American War in 1898, the U.S. got…
the Philippine Islands ($20 million), Puerto Rico, and Guam.
3. Filipino nationalists were bitterly disappointed because they thought that…
the Americans would recognize their independence.
4. Emilio Aguinaldo led the Filipino nationalists to…
battled American forces. In the end, the Americans crushed the rebellion.
5. The Filipinos benefited from the American occupation of the Philippines because…
the Americans built roads, hospitals, railroads, school systems and also made economic reforms.
6. Hawaii was valuable because…
it was a port on the way to Asia and also because it has a profitable sugar industry.
7. In the mid 1800s, business leaders pushed for the annexation of Hawaii by the U.S. because…
if the United States did not take Hawaii, Britain or Japan might do so.
8. In 1898, Hawaii was finally…
annexed by the United States.
Chapter 10: New Global Patterns
Section 4: Economic Imperialism in Latin America
Social and political Hierarchy during the 1800s in Latin America
In the 1800s, most laborers in Latin America worked for landowners, but they were paid by vouchers that can only be used at the landowners’ supply store.
Wages were low and prices were high, many laborers went into debt and passed on their debts to the next generation.
The workers would get caught in the system known as peonage and would never gain financial independence.
When the new governments took over the country, they seized the lands that were formerly owned by the native people and the church.
When the lands were offered for sale, landowners bought them up quickly but did not make proper use of the land.
“Caudillos” were able to remain in power…
By using violence to intimidate opponents.
They were usually supported by the upper class who did not want the lower class to gain any power.
Only a selected few can vote.
Finish the incomplete statements below.
1. In the 1800s, bitter battles between conservatives and liberals led to…
revolts and the rise of dictators. Deep social divisions separated wealthy creoles from mestizos and Indians who lived in poverty.
2. In 1845, the United States annexed Texas. Mexicans interpreted this action…
as a declaration of war.
3. The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, which ended the war, caused Mexico to lose…
almost half its territory (California, Texas, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona). The embarrassing defeat triggered new violence between conservatives and liberals.
4. Benito Juárez’s La Reforma revised the Mexican constitution…
to strip the military of power and end the special privileges of the Church. They ordered the Church to sell unused lands to peasants.
5. When Juárez died in office in 1872, he united Mexico by…
bringing mestizos into politics, and separating church and state.
6. General Porfirio Díaz ruled as a dictator from 1876 to 1880 and 1884 to 1911. He strengthened… the army, local police, and central government. He also crushed opposition.
7. Under the rule of Diaz, economy improved when…
railroads were built, foreign trade increased, some industry developed, and mining expanded.
8. The peonage system caused discontent with the mestizos and Indians in Mexico because… hacienda owners would give workers advances on their wages and require them to stay on the hacienda until they had paid back what they owed. Wages remained low, and workers were rarely able to repay the hacienda owner. Many children died in infancy. Other children worked 12-hour days and never learned to read or write.
Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America economically dependent on Spain and Portugal.
Colonies sent raw materials such as cash crops or precious metals to the parent country.
Must buy manufactured goods from the ruling country.
Laws kept colonists from trading with other countries and possibly obtaining goods at a lower price.
Building of local industries that would have competed with the ruling country was prohibited.
After independence, Britain and the United States rushed into the new markets, replacing Spain as Latin America’s major trading partners.
Investors from Britain, the United States, and other nations pressured their own governments to take action if political events or reform movements in a Latin American country seemed to threaten their interests.
Foreigners invested in modern ports and railroads to carry goods from the interior to coastal cities.
European immigrants poured into Latin America. The newcomers helped to promote economic activity, and a small middle class emerged.
Internal development was limited. The tiny elite at the top benefited from the economic upturn, but very little trickled down to the masses of people at the bottom.
The poor earned too little to buy consumer goods. Without a strong demand, many industries failed to develop.
1. What is the Monroe Doctrine?
It was a document that declared to the European nations that the American continent will no longer be subjected to European colonization.
2. Why did the U.S. join the Spanish-American War for Cuban independence?
By the 1890s, the U.S. had developed significant business holdings in Cuba. Therefore, the U.S. had a stake in the affairs of Cuba. Furthermore, many Cubans were being forced into concentration camps by the Spanish. Many Americans objected to that brutal practice.
3. In 1901, after Spain was defeated in the Spanish-American War, did Cuba get its independence?
Cuba was independent only in name but not in actuality. After the war, the U.S. installed a military government that kept Cuba from achieving true independence (made possible by the Platt Amendment in the Cuban Constitution).
4. Why was Panama a valuable location to the U.S.?
Panama contained a location that was ideal for the construction of a canal that would save sailors of having to go around the tip of South America during the coast to coast journey. Basically, a 13,000 mile journey would be cut in half.
5. What actions did the U.S. take when Colombia demanded more money from the U.S. for the rights to build a canal in Panama?
The United States encouraged a revolution in Colombia by helping the Panamanians to break away from Colombia with the assistance of the U.S. navy. When Panama succeeded, it gave U.S. a 10 mile wide stretch of land to build the canal as a token of its gratitude.
6. What is the Roosevelt Corollary? How did the U.S. use it?
The Roosevelt Corollary was issued in 1904 by President Roosevelt to protect the economic interests of the U.S. by giving it “international police power” in the western hemisphere. The U.S. used it as justification for intervention in Latin America and also for the occupation of troops in some countries. Many Latin American countries complained, but they were ignored. It was also known as the “Big Stick” policy.