08/26/15 Homework and Notes

August 26, 2015

ECON:
Complete 2 pages of Cornell notes for Chapter 2, Section 3 from page 34-38.

WH:
Complete 3 pages of Cornell notes for Chapter 1, Section 4 from page 33-39.
Here is a website for instructions on Cornell Notes…
http://www.wikihow.com/Take-Cornell-Notes

GOV’T
Chapter 2, Section 1 Notes
1. Identify the three basic concepts of government that influenced government in the English colonies.
The three basic concepts of government are ordered government, limited government, and representative government. English colonists who saw the need for orderly regulation, so they then created local government based on what they had in England. For example, the city hall, fire department, police department to keep peace and order. Limited government means that even though the government is the government, it doesn’t have all the power people think it does. As citizens, we have rights that the government has no control over. Representative government is a person that is voted by the people. The rep. is sent to the legislative government to be the voice of the people.
2. Explain the significance of the following landmark English documents: the Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the English Bill of Rights.
The three important English documents are the first series of challenges against dictatorship. The Petition of Right limited the power of the kings by forcing a King to seek approval from the Parliament for more money in taxes. Most importantly, the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights granted protection for the people. The Magna Carta is the protection against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty or property. The English Bill of Rights guaranteed the rights to fair trials and forbade cruel and unusual punishment. Thus the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights limited the absolute power of a dictator and eventually gave birth to democracy in America. After the Revolutionary War, the United States adopted the Bill of Rights and the Constitution in which concepts were taken directly from the English Bill of Rights.
3. Describe the three types of colonies that the English established in North America.
Colonies that had been established in North America were divided into three categories: Royal, Proprietary, and Charter. Royal colonies were under direct control of the British Crown. The King would appoint governors and council members to serve in the colonies. Charter colonies were largely self-governing colonies whose governors are elected each year by the white, male property owners in each state. In a proprietary colony, it is organized by proprietors. The land can be settled and governed as much as the proprietor wants. The government is similar to the royal colony, but the legislature is unicameral.


ECON: Chapter 2, Section 2 Notes

August 26, 2015

Ch. 2: Economic Systems

Sec. 2: The Free Market

Roles of Each Factor in the Free Market Economy

Individuals:
Own the factors of production. Supply businesses with land, labor, and capital.
They are consumers of goods and services produced by businesses.
Pay taxes to government.

Businesses:
Use resources to produce products that would be placed in the market.
Turn raw materials (input) into products (output).
Employ individuals and transfers payment to them in the factor market.

Self-Interest:
Motivating force in the free market.
Most consumers will respond to the positive incentive of saving money.
Sellers have the incentive to make greater profit by increasing sales.

Competition:
Regulating force of the free market.
Prevents the producer from overcharging consumers.
Causes more production to keep prices in control.
It increases the quality of the products.
It is the “Invisible Hand” of the marketplace.


08/25/15 Homework

August 25, 2015

ECON, WH, & GOV’T
Complete the Thinking Map on your assigned topic.

Gov’t Class Only:
Remember to include a summary to accompany your Thinking Map.


GOV’T: Chapter 1, Section 3 Notes

August 25, 2015

Chapter 1: Principles of Government
Section 3: Basic Concept of Democracy

Democracy exists in this country because the American people believe in its basic concepts.

The American concept of democracy rests on these basic notions:
1. A recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of every person;
2. A respect for the equality of all persons;
3. A faith in majority rule and an insistence upon minority rights;
4. An acceptance of the necessity of compromise; and
5. An insistence upon the widest possible degree of individual freedom.

Critical Thinking:

1. Describe the essential components of the free enterprise system.
It is an economic system characterized by the private ownership of capital goods, investments made by private decision, not by government directive, and success or failure determined by competition in the marketplace.
The free enterprise system is based on four fundamental factors: private ownership, individual initiative, profit, and competition.

2. What makes the free enterprise system work?

It does not rely on government to decide what items are to be produced, how much of any particular item should be produced, or how much any item is to sell for. Rather, those decisions are to be made by the market, through the law of supply and demand. That law states that when supplies of goods and services become plentiful, prices tend to drop. When supplies become scarcer, prices tend to rise.

3. Give three examples of how our government participates in the economy.
The government…
provides the currency as legal tender
sets rules and regulations for industries
adjusts interest rates according to economic condition
provide safety net programs to help people in need
sets minimum wage and make laws regarding working condition.

4. What is the effect of the Internet on democracy?

The Internet makes knowledgeable participation in the democratic process easier than ever before. But there are often unverifiable and frequently false information and biased analysis in cyberspace.


WH: Chapter 1, Section 2 Notes

August 25, 2015

Chapter 1: Sources of Democratic Tradition

Section 2: The Roman Republic and Empire

Part 2 Notes

Critical Thinking Questions:
1. How did Roman expansion create problems for the Roman society?
A new class of wealthy landholders emerged. They bought up huge estates and forced people who were captured in war to work on the estates as slaves. This use of slave labor hurt small farmers, who could not produce food as cheaply as the estates could. Compounding farmers’ problems, huge quantities of grain pouring in from conquered lands drove down grain prices.
Rome’s army was made up of loyal citizens who fought without pay and supplied their own weapons. Yet these citizen-soldiers gained little from Rome’s success.
2. Which reforms occurred under the leadership of Julius Caesar from 48 to 44 B.C.?
He launched a program of public works to employ the jobless and gave public land to the poor. He also granted citizenship to many people in the provinces.
3. How did Augustus Caesar create a foundation for stable government?
Augustus created an efficient, well-trained civil service to enforce the laws. He opened high-level jobs to men of talent, regardless of their class. In addition, he cemented the allegiance of cities and provinces to Rome by allowing them a large measure of self-government.
4. What is the “Pax Romana”?
Pax Romana, or “Roman Peace.” During that time, Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to the empire. During the Pax Romana, the Roman military maintained and protected a network of all-weather roads, and Roman fleets chased pirates from the seas. Trade flowed freely to and from distant lands in Africa and Asia. The Romans also spread ideas and knowledge.
5. What is the law of nations?
The law of nations is based on the laws of nature, arrived at by using the human ability to reason. For this reason they believed it to be a legitimate system of law that could apply to all people.
6. How did Justinian’s Code impact the world?
By the 1100s, Justinian’s code had reached Western Europe. There, both the Christian church and medieval monarchs modeled their laws on its principles. Centuries later, the code also guided legal thinkers who began to compile the international law in use today.


08/24/15 Homework and Notes

August 24, 2015

ECON
Provide a grade for each economic goal on Figure 2.2 on page 25. Then justify the grade provided with a paragraph (total of 5 paragraphs).

WH

HOMEWORK
Copy, translate and answer the questions below…
Critical Thinking Questions:
1. How did Roman expansion create problems for the Roman society?
2. Which reforms occurred under the leadership of Julius Caesar from 48 to 44 B.C.?
3. How did Augustus Caesar create a foundation for stable government?
4. What is the “Pax Romana”?
5. What is the law of nations?
6. How did Justinian’s Code impact the world?

Also translate the notes posted below…
NOTES
Chapter 1: Sources of Democratic Tradition
Section 2: The Roman Republic and Empire

Because of its geography, Italy was much easier to unify than Greece. Unlike Greece, Italy is not broken up into small, isolated valleys.
Italy has the advantage of broad, fertile plains, both in the north, under the shadow of the towering Alps, and in the west. Farms in these plains supported a growing population.

The ancestors of the Romans migrated into Italy by about 800 B.C.

The Romans shared the Italian peninsula with other peoples. Among them were Greek colonists and the Etruscans, who lived north of Rome.

The Romans drove out the Etruscans in 509 B.C. They set up a new government in which the people chose some officials.
They called it a republic (representative democracy), or “thing of the people.” A republic should keep any individual from gaining too much power.

Structure of the Early Roman Republic

The most powerful governing body was the senate.
Its 300 members were all patricians, meaning they belonged to the landholding upper class.
Senators, who served for life, made the laws.

Each year, the senators elected two consuls from among the patricians.
The consuls supervised the business of government and commanded Rome’s armies.
Consuls, however, could serve only one term.
Also, they had to consult with the senate on major issues.

By limiting the consuls’ time in office and making them responsible to the senate, Rome had a system of checks on the power of government.

In the event of war, the senate might choose a dictator, or ruler who has complete control over a government. The law granted each Roman dictator the power to rule for six months. Then he had to give up power.

Common People Demand Equality
The common people, or plebeians, made up the bulk of the Roman population. Yet they had little influence on government.
The plebeians consisted of farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders to gain power shaped politics in the early republic.
Over time, the plebeians gained the right to elect their own officials, called tribunes, to protect their interests.
The tribunes could veto, or block, laws harmful to plebeians.
More than 2,000 years later, the framers of the U.S. Constitution would adapt such Roman ideas as the senate, the veto, and checks on power.

GOV’T
Copy and answer questions 1-20 on page 24 to review Chapter 1. Due on Thursday.


08/21/15 Homework and Notes

August 21, 2015

ECON
Copy and answer questions 1-12 on page 20-21 to review Chapter 1.

WH
1. Define and translate vocabulary on page 20
2. Complete the Thinking Map of your assigned topic
3. Create a Translated summary of your Thinking Map.

GOV’T
1. Complete an english summary along with a translated version.
2. Give two examples demonstrate the occurrence of your topic in the United States.

NOTES
Chapter 1: Principles of Government
Section 2: Forms of Government

Governments are classified according to
(1) who can participate in the governing process,
(2) the geographic distribution of governmental power within the state, and
(3) the relationship between the legislative (lawmaking) and the executive (law-executing) branches of the government.

Who can participate in the governing process?
In a democracy, supreme political authority rests with the people.
The people hold the sovereign power, and government is conducted only by and with the consent of the people.
A democracy can be either direct or indirect in form. A direct democracy, also called a pure democracy, exists where the will of the people is translated into public policy (law) directly by the people themselves, in mass meetings.
Americans are more familiar with representative democracy, where a small group of persons, chosen by the people to act as their representatives, expresses the popular will.
A dictatorship exists where those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people.
It is the oldest, and the most common, form of government known to history.
Dictatorships are sometimes identified as either autocracies or oligarchies.
An autocracy is a government in which a single person holds unlimited political power.
An oligarchy is a government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite.

Complete the following statements.
1. A unitary government is often described as a…centralized government. All powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency.
2. Unitary government can’t be likened to a dictatorship because…the powers held by the unitary government are limited and representatives are elected by the people.
3. In the United States, the federal Government has certain powers and the 50 States have others. This division of powers is set out in the Constitution of the United States. The Constitution stands … above both levels of government; and it cannot be changed unless the people, acting through both the National Government and the States, agree to that change.
4. A confederation is an alliance of independent states. As a central organization, the confederate government has the power to handle…. only those matters that the member states have assigned to it.
5. A presidential government features a separation of powers…between the executive and the legislative branches of the government.
6. In parliamentary government, the executive is made up of the prime minister or premier, and that official’s cabinet. The prime minister is the leader of the majority party in parliament and is…chosen by that party.
7. Parliamentary government avoids one of the major problems of the presidential form: prolonged…conflict and sometimes deadlock between the executive and legislative branches. On the other hand, it should be noted that the checks and balances of presidential government are not a part of the parliamentary system.


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